Estudos cientificos



(Lai) Referências relatando efeitos biológicos da radiação de radiofrequência (RFR) de baixa intensidade à data de Janeiro de 2005, compiladas em
27.12.2004 pelo Doutor PhD. Henry C. Lai, Professor e Investigador em Bioengenharia, Universidade de Washington, Seattle, WA (  /safe/content/celltower/celltowerfinal.htm#ref49) (Nexus 14(5)) Nexus Magazine 14(5)
(PH) Philips, Alasdair and Jean.  2006.  The Powerwatch Handbook – Simple ways to Make You and Your Family Safer. Piatkus Books Ltd, Londres, R.Unido, 294 pp
(pwt) - (pwt) Estudos compilados por (;



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Aalto S, Haarala C, Bruck A, Sipila H, Hamalainen H, Rinne JO (2006) Mobile phone affects cerebral blood flow in humans, J Cereb Blood Flow Metab Jul;  26(7):885-890. (Pilette)

Abdel-Rassoul G et al, (2006) Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations, Neurotoxicology [Ahead of Print] (pwt)

Adey, W.R., 1975: Introduction: Effects of electromagnetic radiation on the nervous system". Annals N.Y. Acad Sci 247, February, 15-20 – “It has become clear [...] that interactions with the mammalian central nervous system can be reliably produced by oscillating electric and electromagnetic fields without significant heating of tissues". (buerg)

Adey, W.R., 1979: Neurophysiologic effects of Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiation". Bull N.Y. Acad Med 55(11): 1079-93 - contains evidence of other windows for ELF induced Ca2+ efflux in chick and cat brains, e.g. 5, 10, 56 and 100 V/m and other microwave intensity windows for Ca2+ influx and efflux. (buerg)

Adey WR, Bawin SM, Lawrence AF (1982) “Effects of weak amplitude-modulated microwave fields on calcium efflux from awake cat cerebral cortex”, Bioelectromagnetics 3(3):295-307. (Pilette)

Ahlbom A, Day N, Feychting M , Roman E, Skinner J, Dockerty J, Mcbride M, Michaelis J, Olsen JH, Tynes T, Verkasalo PK (2000) Br J Cancer; 83(5), 692-698 - a pooled analysis of magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. (revolt)

Ahlbom A (2001) Neurodegenerative diseases, suicide and depressive symptoms in relation to EMF, Bioelectromag Suppl 5:S132-S143. (Anselmo)

Ahmad M, Galland P, Ritz T, Wiltschko R, Wiltschko W (2006) Magnetic intensity affects cryptochrome-dependent responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, Planta Sep 6;  [Epub. ahead of print] (Pilette)

Ahuja YR, Bhargava A, Sircar S, Rizwani W, Lima S, Devadas AH, Bhargava SC (1997) Comet assay to evaluate DNA damage caused by magnetic fields, In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility, India Hyderabad, December 1997: 272-276 - chronic exposure to the doses used in the present study may result in an increased incidence of congenital malformations and cancer. (buerg)

Ahuja YR et al. (1999) In vitro effects of low level, low frequency eletromagnetic fields on DNA damage in human leucocytes by comet assay, Indian J Biochem Biophysics 36:318-22. (Anselmo)

Al-Akhras M et al. 2001. Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field don fertility of adult male and female rats, Bioeletromag 22(5):340-344. (Anselmo)

Al-Khlaiwi T, Meo SA (2004) Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tensio and sleep disturbance in Saudi population, Saudi Med J Jun; 25 (6):732-736 (Pilette)

Albert  E.N., Sherif  M., “ Morphological changes in cerebellum of neonatal rats exposed to 2.45 Ghz microwaves”, Prog Clin Biol Res 1988; 257:135-151. (Pilette)

Altpeter, E.S., Krebs, Th., Pfluger, D.H., von Kanel, J., Blattmann, R., et al., 1995: "Study of health effects of Shortwave Transmitter Station of Schwarzenburg, Berne, Switzerland". University of Berne, Institute for Social and Preventative Medicine, August 1995 - found a causal relationship between sleep disturbance and subsequent chronic fatigue, and short-wave radio exposures at extremely low mean levels. (buerg)

Andrienko LG (1977) Experimental study of the effects of industrial frequency electromagnetic fields on reproductive function, JPRS, 70101:1-5.

Anisimov VN, Zabezhinskiy MA, Muratov Ye. I ., Popovich IG, Arutyunan AV, et al. (1998) Influence of radiation  from video terminals of personal computers on estrous function, melatonin levels and free radical processes in laboratory rodents. Biophysics, 43(1):165-170, - showed that chronic irradiation from the video terminals of personal computers causes acceleration of sexual maturation and premature termination of reproductive functions in female mice, and reduces nocturnal levels of melatonin in blood serum. (ussr)

Anselmo CWSF, Bion FM, Catanho MTJA, Medeiros MC, “Potential adverse effects of electromagnetic fields (50/60 Hz) on humans and animals”, Ciênc. saúde coletiva Sept./Dec. 2005, vol.10 suppl, p.71-82.

Archimbaud, E., Charrin, C., Guyotat, D., and Viala, J-J, 1989: "Acute myelogenous leukaemia following exposure to microwaves". British Journal of Haematology, 73(2): 272-273. (buerg)

Arnetz, B.B. and Berg, M., 1996: "Melatonin and Andrenocorticotropic Hormone levels in video display unit workers during work and leisure. J Occup Med 38(11): 1108-1110. (buerg)

Atli E, Unlu H (2006) The effects of microwave frequency electromagnetic fields on the development of Drosophila melanogaster, Int J Radiat Biol Jun; 82(6): 435-441. (Pilette)

Auvinen A, Hietanen M, Luukkonen R, Koskela RS (2002)  Brain tumors and salivary gland cancers among cellular telephone users, Epidemiology May; 13(3):356-359. (Pilette)


Balcer-Kubiczek, E.K. and Harrison, G.H., 1985: Evidence for microwave carcinogenesis". Carcinogenesis, 6: 859-864. (buerg)

Balcer-Kubiczek EK, Harrison GH (1989) Induction of neoplastic transformation in C3H/10T1/2 cells by 2.45-GHz microwaves and phorbol ester”, Radiat Res Mar;117(3): 531-537. (Pilette)

Balcer-Kubiczek, E.K. and Harrison, G.H., 1991: "Neoplastic transformation of C3H/10T1/2 cells following exposure to 120Hz modulated 2.45 GHz microwaves and phorbol ester tumor promoter". Radiation Research, 125: 65-72 - Together with TPA, microwaves significantly increase the number of neoplastically transformed cells in a significant dose response manner. (buerg)

Balmori A (2005) Possible effects of electromagnetic fields from phone masts on a population of white stork (Ciconia ciconia), Electromag Biol Med 24: 109-119. (Pilette)

Balode Sci Total Environ 180(1):81-85, 1996 - blood cells from cows from a farm close and in front of a radar installation showed significantly higher level of severe genetic damage. (Lai)

Balodis, V., Brumelis, G., Kalviskis, K., Nikodemus, O., Tjarve, D., and Znotina, V., 1996: "Does the Skrunda Radio Location Station diminish the radial growth of pine trees?". The Science of the Total Environment, Vol 180, pp 57-64 - A statistically significant (P<0.01) negative correlation between the relative additional increment in tree growth and the intensity of the electric field. The Pine trees at 4 km were exposed to a range of 0.011 to 0.41 µW/cm², a mean open field exposure of 0.039 µW/cm² and measured distance exposure of 0.0027 µW/cm² (for the radar signal). A probable biological mechanism was identified through observed changes in physiological conditions. (buerg)

Band, P.R., Spinelli, J.J., Ng, V.T., Moody, J. and Gallagher, R.P., 1990: "Mortality and cancer incidence in a cohort of commercial airline pilots". Aviat Space Environ Med 61(4): 299-302 - Canada, Commecial pilots, ELF/RF SMR = 4.17 (1.4-9.5), p=0.017 n=4 SIR = 3.45 (1.2-7.9), p=0.03 n=4. (buerg)

Band, P.R., Le, N.D., Fang, R., Deschamps, R., Coldman, A., Gallagher, R.P. and Moody, J., 1996: "Cohort study of Air Canada pilots: mortality incidence and leukaemia risk. Am J Epidemiol 143(2):137-143. (buerg)

Baranski S, Edelwejn Z (1975) Experimental morphologic and lectroencephalographic studies of microwave effects on the nervous system, Ann NY Acad Sci Feb 28;247: 109-116. (Pilette)

Baris D, Armstrong B (1990) Suicide among electric utility workers in England and Wales, Br J Indust Med 47:788-789 - found RF exposure shows a significant 53% increase in suicide for British Radio and Radar Mechanics, and 156 % increase for Telegraph radio operators. (buerg)

Baris D, Armstrong BG, Deadman J & Thériault GA 1996. Mortality study of electrical utility workers in Quebec, Occup Environ Med 53: 25-31. (Anselmo)

Barteri M, Pala A, Rotella S (2005) Structural and kinetic effects of mobile phone microwaves on acetylcholinesterase activity, Biophys Chem, Mar 1;113(3): 245-253. (Pilette)

Bates MN (1991) Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer: the epidemiologic evidence, Environ Health Perspect November; 95: 147–156.

Bawin, S.M., Kaczmarek, L.K., and Adey, W.R., 1975: Effects of modulated VHF fields on the central nervous system". Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 247:74-81. (buerg)

Bawin SM, Adey WR (1976) Sensitivity of calcium binding in cerebral tissue to weak environmental electric fields oscillating at low frequency, Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. Jun; 73(6):1999-2003. (Pilette)

Bawin SM, Adey WR, Sabbot IM (1978a) Ionic factors in release of 45Ca2+ from chicken cerebral tissue by electromagnetic fields, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 75: 6314-6318. (buerg)

Bawin SM, Sheppard AR, Adey WR (1978b) Possible mechanisms of weak electromagnetic field coupling with brain tissue, Bioelectrochem Bioenerg, 45: 67-76. (buerg)

Bawin SM, Satmary WM, Jones RA, Adey WR, Zimmerman G (1996) Extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields disrupt rhythmic slow activity in rat hippocampal slices, Bioelectromagnetics 17(5): 388-395. (Pilette)

Baxter CF, Parsons JE, Oh CC, Wasterlain CG, Baldwin RA (1989) Changes of amino acid gradients in brain tissues induced by microwave irradiation and other means, Neurochem Res, Sep; 14(9):909-913. (Pilette)

Beale IL, Pearce NE, Conroy DM, Henning MA and Murrell KA, “Psychological Effects of Chronic Exposure to 50 Hz Magnetic Fields in Humans Living Near Extra-High-Voltage Transmission Lines”, Bioelectromagnetics 1997;18, 584-594. (revolt)

Beall, C., Delzell, E., Cole, P., and Brill, I., 1996: "Brain tumors among electronics industry workers". Epidemiology, 7(2): 125-130 - U.S. Computer exposures, Computer Programmers (>10 yrs) OR = 2.8 (1.1-7.0) Trend p = 0.04; Engineering/Technical (>10 yrs) OR = 1.7 (1.0-3.0) Trend p = 0.07; Glioma, All subjects, 5yr programme OR = 3.9 (1.2-12.4) Trend p = 0.08. Is quoted by ICNIRP as failing to show significant increases in nervous system tumours. Actually it does show many significant increases of brain tumors, and it includes a significant dose-response relationship between years of exposure and rates of brain tumor for computer programmers. (buerg)

Beason R, Semm P, (2002) Responses of neurons to an amplitude modulated microwave stimulus, Neurosci Lett 2002 Nov 29;333(3):175-8 (pwt)

Becker RO 1977. Microwave radiation, N.Y. State. Journal of Medicine 77:217 – almost double cancer rate connected with high power lines. (Anselmo)

Belanger, K., Leaderer, B., Hellenbrand, K., Holford, T.R., McSharry, J-E., Power, M-E, and Bracken, M.B., 1998: "Spontaneous abortion and exposure to electric blankets and heated water beds". Epidemiology, 9: 36-42 - conducted a prospective study (N= 2967) to evaluate the relation between spontaneous abortion and the use of electrically heated beds. Electric blanket use was associated with increased spontaneous abortion, OR = 1.84, 95%CI: 1,08-3.13 for unadjusted data, and OR = 1.74, 95%CI: 0.96-3.15 for data adjusted for other risk factors such as alcohol, smoking, age and caffeine intake. (buerg)

Belyaev IY, Hillert L, Protopopova M, Tamm C, Malmgren LO, Persson BR, Selivanova G, Harms-Ringdahl M (2005) 915 MHz microwaves and 50 Hz magnetic field affect chromatin conformation and 53BP1 foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons, Bioelectromagnetics Apr; 26(3): 173-184 - Exposure at room temperature to either 915 MHz or 50 Hz resulted in significant condensation of chromatin. (Pilette)

Belyaev IY, Koch CB, Terenius O, Roxstrom-Lindquist K, Malmgren LO, H Sommer W, Salford LG, Persson BR (2006) Exposure of rat brain to 915 MHz GSM microwaves induces changes in gene expression but not double stranded DNA breaks or effects on chromatin conformation, Bioelectromagnetics May; 27(4): 295-306. (Pilette)

Belyavskaya NA (2004) Biological effects due to weak magnetic field on plants, Adv Space Res; 34(7): 1566-1574. (Pilette)

Berg G, Spallek J, Schuz J, Schlehofer B, Bohler E, Schlaefer K, Hettinger I, Kunna-Grass K, Wahrendorf J, Blettner M (2006) Interphone Study Group, Germany; Occupational exposure to radiofrequency / microwave radiation and the risk of brain tumors: Interphone Study Group, Germany, Am J Epidemiol Sep 15; 164(6) 538-548. (Pilette)

Berman, E., Carter, H.B., and House D., 1982: Reduce weight in mice offspring after in utero exposure to 2450 MHz (CW) microwaves". Bioelectromagnetics, 3(2): 285-291 - They investigated the teratogenic potential of microwaves on Syrian hamsters, using 2.45 GHz at power densities of 30 mW/cm² for 100 minutes daily This caused a temperature rise of 0.8 ºC and significant fetal resporptions or death (p = 0.0012), decreased fetal body weight (p=0.0001) and decreased skeletal maturity. (buerg)

Berman E, Chacon L, House D, Koch BA, Koch WE, Leal J, Lovtrup S, Mantiply E, Martin AH, Martucci GI et al. (1990) Development of chicken embryos in a pulsed magnetic field, Bioelectromagnetics 11(2): 169-187. (Pilette)

Bielski J (1994) Bioelectrical brain activity in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields, Ann NY Acad Sci Jun 6;724: 435-437. (Pilette)

Blaasaas KG, Tynes T, Irgens A, Lie RT, “Risk of birth defects by parental occupational exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields: a population based study”, Occup Environ Med 2002; 59 (7): 92-97 - The study gives an indication of an association between selected disorders of the central nervous system and parental occupational exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields.

Blackman, C.F., Elder J.A., Weil, C.M., Benane S.G., Eichinger, D.C., and House, D.E., 1979: Induction of calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue by radiofrequency radiation: effects of modulation frequency and field strength". Radio Science 14(6S):93-98. (buerg)

Blackman CF, Benane SG, Elder JA, House DE, Lampe JA, Faulk JM (1980) Induction of calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue by radiofrequency radiation : effect of sample number and modulation frequency on the power-density window, Bioelectromagnetics 1(1): 35-43. (Pilette)

Blackman, C.F., Benane, S.G., Elliott, D.J., and Pollock, M.M., 1988: Influence of Electromagnetic Fields on the Efflux of Calcium Ions from Brain Tissue in Vitro: A Three-Model Analysis Consistent with the Frequency Response up to 510 Hz". Bioelectromagnetics, 9:215-227. (buerg)

Blackman, C.F., 1990: "ELF effects on calcium homeostasis". In "Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields: The question of cancer", BW Wilson, RG Stevens, LE Anderson Eds, Publ. Battelle Press Columbus: 1990; 187-208 - "Taken together, the evidence overwhelmingly indicates that electric and magnetic fields can alter normal calcium ion homeostasis and lead to changes in the response of biological systems to their environment". (buerg)

Bonhomme-Faivre L et al. 1998. Alterations of biological parameters in mice chronically exposed to low-frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic fields. Life Sciences 62(14):1271-1280. (Anselmo)

Borbely AA, Huber R, Graf T, Fuchs B, Gallmann E, Achermann P (1999) Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram, Neurosci Lett Nov; 275(3): 207-210. (Pilette)

Bortkiewicz, A., Zmyslony, M., Palczynski, C., Gadzicka, E. and Szmigielski, S., 1995: "Dysregulation of autonomic control of cardiac function in workers at AM broadcasting stations (0.738-1.503 MHz)". Electro- and Magnetobiology 14(3): 177-191 - found that RF exposure altered heart rate variability and blood pressure. (buerg)

Bortkiewicz, A., Gadzicka, E. and Zmyslony, M., 1996: "Heart rate in workers exposed to medium-frequency electromagnetic fields". J Auto Nerv Sys 59: 91-97 - found that RF exposure altered heart rate variability and blood pressure. (buerg)

Bortkiewicz A, Zmyslony M, Gadzicka E, Palczynski C, Szmigielski S (1997) Ambulatory ECG monitoring in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields, J Med Eng and Tech 21(2):41-46 - found that RF exposure altered heart rate variability and blood pressure. (buerg)

Bortkiewicz A (2001) [A study on the biological effects of exposure mobile-phone frequency EMF] [Article in Polish] Med Pr 52(2):101-106. (Pilette)

Bortkiewicz A, Zmyslony M, Szyjkowska A, Gadzicka E (2004) [Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: review] [Article in Polish] Med Pr 55 (4): 345-351. (Pilette)

Bortkiewicz A, Gadzicka E, Zmyslony M, Szymczak W (2006) Neurovegetative disturbances in workers exposed to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields, Int J Occup Med Environ Health 19(1): 53–60 - It was concluded that occupational exposure to 50 Hz electromagentic fields could influence the neurovegetative regulation of the cardiovascular system.

Boscol et al. Sci Total Environ 273(1-3):1-10, 2001 - RFR from radio transmission stations (0.005 mW/cm2) affects immune system in women. (Lai)

Braune, S., Wrocklage, C., Raczek, J., Gailus, T. and Lucking C.H., 1998: "Resting blood pressure increase during exposure to a radio-frequency electromagnetic field". The Lancet, 351, June 20, 1988, 1857-1858 - showed that cell phone significantly increased blood pressure. (buerg)

Brown-Woodman, P.D., Hadley, J.A., Richardson, L., Bright, D., and Porter, D., 1989: "Evaluation of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency fields (27.12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device". Health Physics, 56(4): 521-525 - exposed a set of rats to a repeated exposure to 27.12 MHz EM fields for 5 weeks. A reduction in fertility occurred as indicated by a reduced number of matings in exposed rats compared to sham-exposed rats, and a reduced number of conceptions after exposure. (buerg)

Brueve, R., Feldmane, G., Heisele, O., Volrate, A. and Balodis, V., 1998: "Several immune system functions of the residents from territories exposed to pulse radio-frequency radiation". Presented to the Annual Conference of the ISEE and ISEA, Boston Massachusetts July 1998 - Chronic, 25 year, exposure to an extremely low intensity (<0.1 µW/cm²) 156-162 MHz, 24.4 Hz pulse frequency, radar signal in Latvia produced significant alterations in the immune system factors of exposed villagers. (buerg)

Burch, J.B., Reif, J.S., Pittrat, C.A., Keefe, T.J. and Yost, M.G., 1997: "Cellular telephone use and excretion of a urinary melatonin metabolite". In: Annual review of Research in Biological Effects of electric and magnetic fields from the generation, delivery and use of electricity, San Diego, CA, Nov. 9-13, P-52. (buerg)

Burch, J.B., Reif, J.S., Yost, M.G., Keefe, T.J. and Pittrat, C.A., 1998: "Nocturnal excretion of urinary melatonin metabolite among utility workers". Scand J Work Environ Health 24(3): 183-189. (buerg)

Burch, J.B., Reif, J.S. and Yost, M.G., 1999a: "Geomagnetic disturbances are associated with reduced nocturnal excretion of melatonin metabolite in humans". Neurosci Lett 266(3):209-212. (buerg)

Burch, J.B., Reif, J.S., Yost, M.G., Keefe, T.J. and Pittrat, C.A., 1999b: "Reduced excretion of a melatonin metabolite among workers exposed to 60 Hz magnetic fields" Am J Epidemiology 150(1): 27-36. (buerg)

Burch, J.B., Reif, J.S., Noonan, C.W. and Yost, M.G., 2000: "Melatonin metabolite levels in workers exposed to 60-Hz magnetic fields: work in substations and with 3-phase conductors". J Occup Env Med, 42(2): 136-142. (buerg)
54.    Burch J et al, (2002) Melatonin metabolite excretion among cellular telephone users, J Sleep Res 2002 Dec;11(4):289-95 (pwt)

Burchard JF, Nguyen DH, Richard L, Young SN, Heyes MP, Block E (1998) Effects of electromagnetic fields on the levels of biogenic amine metabolites, quinolinic acid, and beta-endorphin in the cerebrospinal fluid of dairy cows, Neurochem Res Dec; 23(12): 1527-1531. (Pilette)

Byus, C.V., 1994: "Alterations in Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity: a cellular response to Low-Energy Electromagnetic Field Exposure". Updated Sept 1994 from Summary and Results of the April 26-27, 1993 Radiofrequency Radiation Conference. (buerg)


CALIFORNIA HEALTH DEPARTMENT REPORT ON ELECTRIC AND MAGNET FIELDS FROM POWER LINES, APRIL 2001 - this report highlights the added risk of miscarriage, childhood Leukaemia, brain cancer and a greater incidence of suicide as some of the health risks associated with exposure to electric and magnetic fields such as from power lines. The new information concerning miscarriage is particularly disturbing. Women exposed to magnetic fields of 16 mG (1.6 uT) or more while pregnant are up to six times more likely to have a miscarriage. (revolt)

Calzoni GL, Borghini F, Del Giudice E, Betti L, Dal Rio F, Migliori M, Trebbi G, Speranza A (2003) Weak extremely high frequency microwaves affect pollen-tube emergence and growth in kiwifruit : pollen grain irradiation and water-mediated effects, J Altern Complement Med Apr; 9(2): 217-228. (Pilette)

Campbell-Beachler, M., Ishida-Jones, T., Haggren, W. and Phillips, J.L., 1998: "Effect of 60 Hz magnetic field exposure on c-fos expression in stimulated PC12 cells". Mol Cell Biochem 189(1-2): 107-111. (buerg)

Cantor, K.P., Stewart, P.A., Brinton, L.A., and Dosemeci, M., 1995: Occupational exposures and female breast cancer mortality in the United States". Journal of Occupational Medicine, 37(3): 336-348 - Increased risk of female breast cancer with exposure to radiofrequency EMF, RR=1.15 (1.1-1.2). (buerg)

Capri M, Scarcella E, Fumelli C, Bianchi E, Salvioli S , Mesirca P,  Agostini C, Antolini A, Schiavoni A, Castellani G, Bersani F, Franceschi C (2004) In vitro exposure of human lymphocytes to 900 MHz CW and GSM modulated radiofrequency: studies of proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential, Radiat Res Aug;162(2): 211-218. (Pilette)

Capri M, Salvioli S, Altilia S, Sevini F, Remondini D, Mesirca P, Bersani F, Monti D, Franceschi C,  “Age-dependent effects of in vitro radiofrequency exposure (mobile phone) on CD95+ T helper human lymphocytes”, Ann. N Y Acad Sci 2006 May; 1067:493-499. (Pilette)

Caraglia M, Marra M, Mancinelli F, D'ambrosio G, Massa R, Giordano A, Budillon A, Abbruzzese A, Bismuto  E (2005) Electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequency induce apoptosis and inactivation of the multi-chaperone complex in human epidermoid cancer cells, J Cell Physiol Aug; 204(2):539-548. (Pilette)

Cecconi S 2000. Evaluation of the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic on mammalian follicle development. Human Reproduction 15(1):2319-2325. (Anselmo)

Charles LE, Loomis D et al, “Electomagnetic fields, polychlorinated biphenyls, and prostrate cancer mortality in electric utility workers”, Am J Epidemiol 2003 Apr 15;157(8):683-91 – in men, EMR exposure reduced the level of testosterone – a hormone drop that has been linked to testicular and prostate cancers. (Nexus 14(5))

Chazan, B., Janiak, M., Szmigielski, S., and Troszynski, M., 1983: Development of murine embryos and fetuses after irradiation with 2450 MHz microwaves". Problemy Medycyny Wieku Rozwojowego,12:164-173 - investigated the development of murine embryos and fetuses after irradiation with 2450 MHz microwaves at 40 mW/cm². They found indications of retardation of development in the early period of gestation in mice exposed to thermal MW fields. During the second half of pregnancy an increase in the number of resorptions, stillbirths and internal hemorrhages was noted. The living fetuses had lowered body mass compared to the offsprings of sham-irradiated mice. (buerg)

Chiang et al. J. Bioelectricity 8:127-131, 1989 - people who lived and worked near radio antennae and radar installations showed deficits in psychological and short-term memory tests. (Lai)

Choi YM et al. 2003. Extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure modulates the diurnal rhythm of the pain threshold in mice. Bioelectromagnetics 24(3): 206-210. (Anselmo)

Chou, C-K., Guy, A.W., Kunz, L.L., Johnson, R.B., Crowley, J.J. and Krupp, JH., 1992: "Long-term, low-level microwave irradiation of rats". Bioelectromagnetics 13: 469-496 - chronically exposed rats to a non-thermal radar-like signal, observed a significant increase in benign tumors and highly significant increase in primary malignant tumors, RR=3.6, 95%CI: 1.34-9.7, p=0.0036. (buerg)

Cleary SF, Du Z, Cao G, Liu LM, Mccrady C (1996) Effect of isothermal radiofrequency radiation on cytolytic T lymphocytes, FASEB J  Jun;10(8): 913-919. (Pilette)

Coleman MP, Bell CMJ & Skeet R 1983. Leukemia incidence in electrical workers. Lanceti:246. (Anselmo)

Coogan PF, Clapp RW, Newcomb PA, Wenzl TB, Greg Bogdan G, Mittendorf,R, Baron JA, Longnecker MP. “Occupational Exposure to 60-Hertz Magnetic Fields and Risk of Breast Cancer in Women”. Epidemiology 1996 Sep; 7(5):459-64 (Nexus 14(5))

Cook MR, Graham C, Cohen HD & Gerkovish MM (1991) A replication study of human exposure to 60-Hz fields: Effect on neurobehavioral measures, Bioelectromag 13:261. (Anselmo)

Cook CM, Thomas AW,  Prato FS (2002) Human electrophysiological and cognitive effects of exposure to ELF magnetic and ELF modulated RF and microwave fields: a review of recent studies, Bioelectromagnetics Feb; 23(2):144-157. (Pilette)

Cook CM, Saucier DM, Thomas AW,  Prato FS (2006) Exposure to ELF magnetic and ELF-modulated radiofrequency fields: The time course of physiological and cognitive effects observed in recent studies (2001-2005), Bioelectromagnetics Dec;27(8):613-627. (Pilette)

Cook LL, Persinger MA, Koren SA (2000) Differential effects of low frequency, low intensity (<6mG) nocturnal magnetic fields upon infiltration of mononuclear cells and numbers of mast cells in Lewis rat brains, Toxicol Lett Dec 20; 118(1-2): 9-19. (Pilette)

Cossarizza A, Angioni S, Petraglia F, Genazzani AR, Monti D, Capri M, Bersani F, Cadossi R and Franceschi C, 1993: "Exposure to low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increases interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells". Exp Cell Res 204(2):385-387 - showed that ELF fields increased both the spontaneous and PHA and TPA- induced production of interleukin-1 and IL-6 in human peripheral blood. (buerg)

Croft RJ,  Chandler JS, Burgess AP, Barry RJ, Williams JD, Clarke AR (2002) Acute mobile phone operation affects neural function in humans, Clin Neurophysiol Oct; 113(10):1623-1632. (Pilette)

Curcio G, Ferrara M, Moroni F, D'inzeo G, Bertini M, De Gennaro L (2005) Is the brain influenced by a phone call? An EEG study of resting wakefulness, Neurosci Res Nov;53(3): 265-270. (Pilette)

Czerninski, Rakefet; Zini, Avi; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D. (2011) Risk of Parotid Malignant Tumors in Israel (1970–2006) Epidemiology: January 2011; 22(1): 130-131  [article]

Czyz J, Nikolova T, Schuderer J, Kuster N, Wobus AM (2004) Non-thermal effects of power-line magnetic fields (50 Hz) on gene expression levels of pluripotent embryonic stem cells-the role of tumour suppressor p53, Mutat Res Jan 10; 557(1): 63-74. (Pilette)

Czyz J, Guan K, Zeng Q, Nikolova T, Meister A, Schonborn F, Schuderer J, Kuster N, Wobus AM (2004) High frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM signals) affect gene expression levels in tumor suppressor p53-deficient embryonic stem cells, Bioelectromagnetics May; 25(4):296-307. (Pilette)


D'ambrosio G, Massa R, Scarfi MR, Zeni O (2002) Cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes following GMSK phase modulated microwave exposure, Bioelectromagnetics Jan; 23(1): 7-13. (Pilette)

Daniells C, Duce I, Thomas D, Sewell P, Tattersall J, De Pomerai D (1998) Transgenic nematodes as biomonitors of microwave-induced stress, Mutat Res Mar; 399(1): 55-64. (Pilette)

D'costa H., Trueman G, Tang L, Abdel-Rahman U, Abdel-Rahman W, Ong K, Cosic I (2003) Human brain wave activity during exposure to radiofrequency field emissions from mobile phones, Australas Phys Eng Sci Med Dec; 26(4): 162-167. (Pilette)

De Guire, L., Theriault, G., Iturra, H., Provencher, S., Cyr, D., and Case, B.W., 1988: "Increased incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin in workers in a telecommunications industry". British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol 45, pp 824-828 - report increased malignant melanoma of the skin in workers in a telecommunication industry, affecting only men, SIR = 2.7 CI : 1.31-5.02). (buerg)

de Pomerai et al. (2000) Nature 405:417-418. Enzyme Microbial Tech 30:73-79, 2002 - reported an increase in a molecular stress response in cells after exposure to a RFR at a SAR of 0.001 W/kg. This stress response is a basic biological process that is present in almost all animals - including humans. (Lai)

de Pomerai et al. (FEBS Lett  22;543(1-3):93-97, 2003 - RFR damages proteins at 0.015-0.020 W/kg. (Lai)

de Seze, R., Fabbro-Peray, P. and Miro, L., 1999: "GSM radiocellular telephones do not disturb the secretion of antipituitary hormones in humans". Bioelectromagnetics 19(5): 271-278 - showed that cell phone use significantly reduces the pituitary output of Thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)). TSH is a primary regulator of metabolic function. (buerg)

Deapen, D.M. and Henderson, B.E., 1986: "A case-control study of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis". Am. J. Epidemiol 123(5): 790-799 - Occupations at risk of electrical exposure were reported more often by patients (odds ratio (OR)=3.8, 95% confidence interval (Cl)=1.4–13.0). (buerg)

Delgado JM, Leal J, Monteagudo JL, Gracia MG (1982) Embryological changes induced by weak, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, J Anat May; 134 (Pt 3): 533-551. (Pilette)

Demers, P.A., Thomas, D.B., Rosenblatt, K.A., Jimenez, L.M., McTiernan, A., et al.; Occupational Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields and Breast Cancer in Men. Am. J. of Epidemiology Vol 134, No. 4, PP. 340-347, 1991  -  J. Male breast cancer (a very rare tumor), among 227 cases gleaned from the National Cancer Institute, occurred in electricians, telephone linemen and electric power workers six times more often than in a control group. (Guru)

Derias EM, Stefanis P, Drakeley A, Gazvani R, Lewis-Jones DI (2006) Growing concern over the safety of using mobile phones and male fertility, Arch Androl Jan-Feb; 52(1): 9-14. (Pilette)     

D'Inzeo et al. Bioelectromagnetics 9(4):363-372, 1988 - very low intensity RFR  (0.002 – 0.004 mW/cm2) affects the operation of acetylcholine-related ion-channels in cells. These channels play important roles in physiological and behavioral functions. (Lai)

Di Carlo A, White N, Guo F, Garrett P, Litovitz T (2002) Chronic electromagnetic field exposure decreases HSP70 levels and lowers cytoprotection, J Cell Biochem 84 (3): 447-454. (Pilette)

Diem E, Schwarz C, Adlkofer F, Jahn O, Rudiger H (2005) Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobile-phone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro, Mutat Res Jun. 6;583(2): 178-183. (Pilette)

Djordjevic, Z., Kolak, A., Stojkovic, M., Rankovic, N. and Ristic, P., 1979: "A study of the health status of radar workers". Aviat. space environ. Med., Vol 50, pp 396-398 - More neurasthenic symptoms (chronic mental and physical weakness and fatigue) in group exposed to radar. (buerg)

Dmoch, A. and Moszczynski, P., 1998: "Levels of immunoglobulin and subpopulations of T lymphocytes and NK cells in men occupationally exposed to microwave radiation in frequencies of 6-12GHz". Med Pr 49(1):45-49 - found that microwave exposed workers had decreased NK cells and a lower value of the T-helper/T-suppressor ratio was found. (buerg)

Dobson J, St. Pierre T, (1996) Application of the ferromagnetic transduction model to D.C. and pulsed magnetic fields: effects on epileptogenic tissue and implications for cellular phone safety, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996 Oct 23;227(3):718-23 (pwt)

Dockerty, J.D., Elwood, J.M., Skegg, D.C. and Herbison, G.P, 1998: "Electromagnetic field exposures and childhood cancers in New Zealand". Cancer Causes and Control, 9(3): 299-309 - Electric blankets produced elevated adjusted rates of leukaemia (OR= 2.2, 95%CI: 0.7-6.4), CNS cancer (OR = 1.6, 95%CI: 0.4-7.1) and other solid cancers (OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.0-6.1). Leukaemia risk was highest when bedroom magnetic field was ( 0.2 µT compared with ( 0.1 µT, (OR= 15.5, 95%CI:1.1-224). (buerg)

Dolk et al. Am J Epidemiol 145(1):1-9 1997a- a significant increase in adult leukemias was found in residents who lived near the Sutton Coldfield television (TV) and frequency modulation (FM) radio transmitter in England. (Lai)

Dolk, H., Elliott, P., Shaddick, G., Walls, P., Grundy, C., and Thakrar, B.,1997b: Cancer incidence near radio and television transmitters in Great Britain, II All high power transmitters". Am J Epidemiol, 145(1):10-17 - Epidemiologists and statisticians who are unaware of [complex radial] patterns, have made serious errors in the interpretation of their data. In [this] case they assumed a simple inverse square law. Their cancer data follows a complex radial pattern which closely approximates the radial exposure pattern. (buerg)

Dosemeci, M. and Blair, A., 1994: "Occupational Cancer Mortality Among Women Employed in the Telephone Industry". J Occup Med 36 (11): 1204-1209 - Women working in the Telephone Industry showed many excess cancers. Among white women (age <49) Rectum Cancer MOR = 3.3 (1.2-8,7); connective tissue MOR = 4.4 (2.2-8,2); Breast Cancer MOR = 1.6 (1.2-2.1), corpus uteri MOR = 3.3 (1.5-7.5, Ovary MOR = 2.1 (1.3-2.5); and Brain MOR = 2.1 (1.2-3.7). Excess risks of connective tissue cancer among engineers and technicians; office workers; telephone operators; and mechanics and repairers, MOR = 8.5, 4.9, 1.7, and 4.4 respectively. (buerg)

Dutta et al. (1989) Bioelectromagnetics 10(2):197-202 - reported an increase in calcium efflux in cells after exposure to RFR at 0.005 W/kg.  Calcium is an important component of normal cellular functions. (Lai)

Dutta Sk, Das K, Ghosh B, Blackman CF (1992) Dose dependence of acetylcholinesterase activity in neuroblastoma cells exposed to modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, Bioelectromagnetics 13(4) :317-322. (Pilette)


Eger H, Hagen KU, Lucas B, Vogel P, Voit H (2004) Einfluss der raumlichen Nahe von Mobilfunksendeanlagen auf die Krebsinzidenz [Influence of the neighbourhood of a cellular transmitter antenna on the incidence of cancer] Umwelt-Medizin-Gesellschaft Nov; 17(4): 326-335. (Pilette)

El Nahas, S.M. and Oraby, H.A., 1989: "Micronuclei formation in somatic cells of mice exposed to 50 Hz electric fields. Environ Mol Mutagen 13(2):107-111 - observed significant dose-response dependent micronuclei increase in 50 Hz exposed mice somatic cells. (buerg)

Eliyahu I, Luria R, Hareuveny R, Margaliot M, Meiran N, Shani G (2006) Effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted by cellular telephones on the cognitive functions of humans, Bioelectromagnetics Feb; 27(2): 119-126. (Pilette)

EPA, Evaluation of the Potential Carcinogenicity of Electromagnetic Fields; Review Draft, pp 3-148 & 3-149, Dec 13, 1990 - The EPA, in a meta-analysis of over 300 scientific papers, noted a link between three site-specific childhood cancers and EMFs above 2 mG. The report states that there is a connection between EMF exposure and leukemia, lymphoma and cancer of the central nervous system. (Guru)

Erogul O et al, (2006) Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone on human sperm motility: an in vitro study, Arch Med Res 37(7):840-3 (pwt)

Esen F, Esen H (2006) Effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phones on the latency of evoked electrodermal activity, Int J Neurosci Mar; 116(3): 321-329. (Pilette)

Estécio MRH & Silva AE 2002. Alterações cromossômicas causadas pela radiação dos monitores de vídeo de computadores. [Portuguese] Revista de Saúde Pública 36(3):330-336. (Anselmo)

Evans, J.A., Savitz, D.A., Kanal, E. and Gillen, J., 1993: "Infertility and pregnancy outcome among magnetic resonance imaging workers". J Occup Med 35(12): 1191-1195 - compared reproductive outcomes between Magnetic Resonance Workers and other groups. MRI workers had elevated outcomes compared with other workers but compared with homemakers they were highly elevated. (buerg)


32.    Fanelli, C., Coppola, S., Barone, R., Colussi, C., Gualandi, G., Volpe, P. and Ghibelli, L., 1999: "Magnetic fields increase cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis via modulation of Ca2+ influx". FASEB Journal 13(1): 95-102 - One of the key roles on Ca2+ in the carcinogenic process is outlined by Fanelli et al. who showed a dose response relationship for Ca2+ influx over a static magnetic field range from 60 to 600 µT. This Ca2+ influx was observed to inhibit apoptosis. Fanelli et al. stated that magnetic fields thus might interfere with human health by altering/restoring the equilibrium between cell death and proliferation. Indeed, they conclude, the rescue of damaged cells may be the mechanism explaining why magnetic fields that are not mutagenic per se are often able to increase mutation and tumor frequencies. (buerg)
33.    Fedrowitz M, Westermann J, Loscher W (2002) Magnetic field exposure increases cell proliferation but does not affect melatonin levels in the mammary gland of female Sprague Dawley rats, Cancer Res Mar 1; 62(5): 1356-1363. (Pilette)
34.    Fedrowitz M, Loscher W (2005) Power frequency magnetic fields increase cell proliferation in the mammary gland of female Fischer 344 rats but not various other rat strains or substrains, Oncology 69(6): 486-498. (Pilette)
35.    Fejes I et al, (2005) Is there a relationship between cell phone use and semen quality?, Arch Androl 51(5): 385-93 (pwt)
36.    Fernandez C et al, (2005) Comparison of Electromagnetic Absorption Characteristics in the Head of Adult and a Children for 1800 MHz Mobile Phones, Conference Proceeding from the 2005 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Microwave and Optoelectronics (pwt)
37.    Fernie KJ, Bird DM, Petitclerc D (1999) Effects of electromagnetic fields on photophasic circulating melatonin levels in American kestrels, Environ Health Perspect Nov;  107(11): 901-904. (Pilette)
38.    Fernie KJ, Bird DM, Dawson RD, Lague PC (2000a) Effects of electromagnetic fields on the reproductive success of American kestrels, Physiol Biochem Zool Jan-Feb; 73(1): 60-65. (Pilette)
39.    Fernie KJ, Leonard NJ, Bird DM (2000b) Behavior of free-ranging and captive  American kestrels under electromagnetic fields, J Toxicol Environ Health A. Apr 28; 59(8): 597-603. (Pilette)
40.    Fernie KJ, Reynolds SI (2005) The effects of electromagnetic fields from power lines on avian reproductive biology and physiology : a review, J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev Mar-Apr; 8(2): 127-140. (Pilette)
41.    Ferreira A et al, (2006) Ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field irradiation during pregnancy leads to an increase in erythrocytes micronuclei incidence in rat offspring, Life Sci 2006 Dec 3;80(1):43-50 (pwt)
42.    Ferreri F, Curcio G, Pasqualetti P, De Gennaro L, Fini R, Rossini PM (2006) Mobile phone emissions and human brain excitability, Ann Neurol Aug; 60(2):188-196. (Pilette)
43.    Fesenko et al. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 49(1):29-35, 1999 - reported a change in immunological functions in mice after exposure to RFR at a power density of 0.001 mW/cm2. (Lai)
44.    Feychting, M., and Ahlbom, A., 1993: "Magnetic fields and cancer in children residing near Swedish High-voltage power lines". Am J. Epidemiology, 138 (7): 467-481 - found for a cut-off point of 0.2 µT a Relative Risk of RR=2.7 (95%CI: 1.0-6.3) and a trend with p=0.02. For a cut-off point of 0.3 µT, RR= 3.8 (95%CI: 1.4-9.3, for the trend p= 0.005. (buerg)
45.    Feychting M & Ahlbom A 1994. Magnetic fields, leukemia, and central nervous system tumors in Swedish adults residing near high-voltage power lines. Epidemiology 5:501-509. (Anselmo)
46.    Feychting M, Schulgen G, Olsen JH, Ahlbom A (1995) Magnetic fields and childhood cancer- pooled analysis of two Scandinavian studies, European J Cancer 31A (12): 2035-2039 - By pooling data from Norwegian and Swedish studies, Feychting et al. found a relative risk of RR=2.0 (95%CI: 1.0-4.1) for a 0.2 µT cut-off and RR=5.1 (95%CI: 2.1-12.6) for 0.5 µT of, a significant dose response relationship, p=0.03. (buerg)
47.    Feychting M et al. 1998. Magnetic fields and breast cancer in Swedish adults residing near high-voltage power lines. Epidemiology 9:392-397. (Anselmo)
48.    Feychting Maria, Jonsson Fredrik, Pedersen, Nancy L, Ahlbom A (2003) Occupational Magnetic Field Exposure and Neurodegenerative Disease, Epidemiology 14(4):413-419, July - An increased risk of Alzheimer's disease mortality was observed among men exposed both in 1970 and 1980 (relative risk = 2.3; 95% confidence interval = 1.6-3.3 for exposure >=0.5 [mu]T).
49.    Fews AP, Henshaw DL, Keitch PA, Close JJ and Wilding RJ, “increased exposure to pollutant aerosols under high voltage power lines”, International Journal of Radiation Biology 1999 B.;75(12), 1505-1521 (revolt)
50.    Finnie JV, Blumbergs PC, Manavis J, Utteridge TD, Gebski V, Swift JG, Vernon-Roberts B, Kuchel TR (2001) Effect of global system for mobile communication (gsm)-like radiofrequency fields on vascular permeability in mouse brain, Pathology Aug; 33(3): 338-340. (Pilette)
51.    Finnie JV, Blumbergs PC, Manavis J, Utteridge TD, Gebski V, Davies RA, Vernon-Roberts B, Kuchel TR (2002) Effect of long-term mobile communication microwave exposure on vascular permeability in mouse brain, Pathology Aug; 34(4): 344-347. (Pilette)
52.    Flaherty, J.A., 1994: "The efect of on-ionising electromagnetic radiation on RAAF personnel duirng World War II". Australian Family Physician, 23(5), 902-904 - presents The effect of non ionizing electromagnetic radiation on RAAF personnel during World War II". He found in a group of 302 surviving veterans, men had a ratio of single to twin births of 41:1, women 38:1 and overall the ratio was 40:1. This contrasts with the ratio in the normal Australian population of 85:1. Hence radar exposed veterans had over twice the expected number of twins, a very significant result. (buerg)
53.    Floderus, B., Tornqvist, S. and Stenlund C., 1994: "Incidence of selected cancers in Swedish railway workers, 1961-79". Cancer Causes and Control 5(2): 189-194 – found a significant increase in Brain Tumours, RR = 12.2, 95%CI:2.8-52.5; Breast Cancer, RR = 4.9, 95%CI:1.6-11.8 and pituitary tumours, RR = 3.2, 95%CI:1.6-6.2, for electrical railway workers younger than 30 yrs.. (buerg)
54.    Forgacs Z, Thuroczy G, Paksy K, Szabo LD (1998) Effect of sinusoidal 50 Hz magnetic field on the testosterone production of mouse primary Leydig cell culture, Bioelectromagnetics 19(7): 429-431. (Pilette)
55.    Forgacs Z, Somosy Z, Kubinyi G, Sinay H, Bakos J, Thuroczy G, Surjan A, Hudak A, Olajos F, Lazar P (2004) Effects of whole-body 50-Hz magnetic field exposure on mouse Leydig cells, Scientific World Journal Oct 20; 4 Suppl 2: 83-90. (Pilette)
56.    Forgacs Z, Kubinyi G, Sinay G, Bakos J, Hudak A, Surjan A, Revesz C, Thuroczy G (2005) [Effects of 1800 MHz GSM-like exposure on the gonadal function and hematological parameters of male mice] [Article in Hungarian] Magy Onkol 49(2):149-151. (Pilette)
57.    Forgacs Z, Somosy Z,  Kubinyi G, Bakos J, Hudak A, Surjan A, Thuroczy G (2006) [Effect of whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like microwave exposure on testicular steroidogenesis and histology in mice] Reprod Toxicol  Jul; 22(1):111-117. (Pilette)
58.    Frey AH (1998) Headaches from cellular telephones: are they real and what are the implications?, Environ Health Perspect Mar; 106(3):101-103. (Pilette)
59.    Friedman, H.L., 1981: "Are chronic exposure to microwaves and polycythemia associated [letter]". New England J. Med., 304 (6), pp 357-­358 - Higher frequency of increase in red blood cells (polycythemaemia) with  microwave exposure. (buerg)


Gapeev AB, Lushnikov KV, Shumilina Iu.V, Sirota NP, Sadovnikov VB, Chemeris NK (2003) [Effects of low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation on chromatin structure of lymphoid cells in vivo and in vitro][Article in Russian] Radiats Biol Radioecol Jan-Feb; 43(1): 87-92. (Pilette)

Garaj-Vrhovac, V., Fucic, A, and Horvat, D., 1990: "Comparison of chromosome aberration and micronucleus induction in human lymphocytes after occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer and microwave radiation", Periodicum Biologorum, Vol 92, No.4, pp 411-416. (buerg)

Garaj-Vrhovac, V., Horvat, D. and Koren, Z., 1990: "The effect of microwave radiation on the cell genome". Mutat Res 243: 87-93 (1990). (buerg)

Garaj-Vrhovac, V., Horvat, D. and Koren, Z., 1991: "The relationship between colony-forming ability, chromosome aberrations and incidence of micronuclei in V79 Chinese Hamster cells exposed to microwave radiation". Mutat Res 263: 143-149. (buerg)

Garaj-Vrhovac, V., Fucic, A, and Horvat, D., 1992: The correlation between the frequency of micronuclei and specific aberrations in human lymphocytes exposed to microwave radiation in vitro". Mutation Research, 281: 181-186. (buerg)

Garaj-Vrhovac, V., and Fucic, A., 1993: "The rate of elimination of chromosomal aberrations after accidental exposure to microwave radiation". Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 30:319-325. (buerg)

Garcia-Sagredo, J.M. and Monteagudo, J.L., 1991: "Effect of low-level pulsed electromagnetic fields on human chromosomes in vitro: analysis of chromosome aberrations". Hereditas 115(1): 9-11 - a significant effect was observed for one of the intensities tested (40 Gauss), relative to the control group with respect to the yield of chromosome breakages. (buerg)

Garland, F.C., Shaw, E., Gorham, E.D., Garland C.F., White, M.R. and Sinsheimer, P.J., 1990: "Incidence of leukemia in occupations with potential electromagnetic field exposure in United States Navy personnel". Am. J. Epidemiology, 132(2): 293-303 - Navy Electrician's Mates have an excess risk of leukaemia, RR=2.4 (1.0-5.0). (buerg)

Goldhaber, M.K., Polen, M.R., and Hiatt, R.A., 1988: "The risk of miscarriage and birth defects among women who use visual display terminals during pregnancy". Am. J. Industrial Medicine, Vol 13, p695 - a doubling of miscarriage rates has been reported in women working at computer terminals for more than 20 hours/week in the first three months of pregnancy. Note that VDU's emit a wide range of RF radiation. (buerg)

Goldsmith, J.R., 1997b: "Epidemiologic evidence relevant to radar (microwave) effects". Environmental Health Perspectives, 105 (Suppl 6): 1579-1587 - Dr Goldsmith's own conclusions, after reviewing some of the epidemiological data on RF health effects include: "Available data suggest that RF radiation be considered a carcinogenic risk, a position already taken in an internal U.S. E.P.A. document [Cited in Sibbison (1990)], in 1990 when there was much less evidence of the potential harmfulness of RF radiation." (buerg)

Goswami, P.C., Albee, L.D., Parsian, A.J., Baty, J.D., Moros, E.G., Pickard, W.F., Roti Roti, J.L. and Hunt, C.R., 1999: "Proto-oncogene mRNA levels and activities of multiple transcription factors in C3H 10T 1/2 murine embryonic fibroblasts exposed to 835.62 and 847.74 MHz cellular telephone communication frequency radiation". Radiat Res 151(3): 300-309 - Cell phone radiation significantly enhances the proto oncogene c-fos activity in C3H 10T 1/2 cells, from a 40 % (p=0.04) increase from a digital cell phone and a 2-fold increase (p=0.001) from an analogue cell phone. (buerg)

Graham, C., Cook, M.R., Cohen, H.D. and Gerkovich, M.M., 1994: "A dose response study of human exposure to 60Hz electric and magnetic fields". Bioelectromagnetics 15: 447-463. (buerg)

Graham, C., Cook, M.R., Sastre, A., Riffle, D.W. and Gerkovich, M.M., 2000: "Multi-night exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields: effects on melatonin and its enzymatic metabolite". J Pineal Res 28(1): 1-8. (buerg)

Graham C, Cook MR, Gerkovich MM, Sastre A, “Examination of the melatonin hypothesis in women exposed at night to EMR or bright light”, Environ Health Perspect 2001 May;109(5):501-507 – overnight exposure of women to elevated levels of EMR in the laboratory significantly increased their level of oestrogen, which is a known risk factor for breast cancer. (Nexus 14(5))

Grayson, J.K., 1996a: "Radiation Exposure, Socioeconomic Status, and Brain Tumour Risk in the US Air Force: A nested Case-Control Study". American J. of Epidemiology, 143 (5), 480-486 - U.S. Air Force personnel, age-race-adjusted odds ratios ELF fields OR = 1.28 (0.95-1.74) RF/MW fields OR = 1.39 (1.01-1.90). Quoted by ICNIRP as failing to show significant increases in nervous system tumours, when it does show a significant increase in brain tumor for RF/MW exposed personnel. (buerg)

Grayson, J.K. and Lyons, T.J., 1996b: "Cancer incidence in the United States Air Force". Aviat Space Environ Med 67(2): 101-104 - U.S. Air Force. aircrew compared OR = 1.77(1.17-2.68) n=37 with non-flying crew; adjusted for rank, socioecom. OR = 1.22 (0.76-1.95). (buerg)

Greenland S, Sheppard AR, Kaune WT, Poole C and Kelsh MA, Epidemiology 2000;11, 624-634 - a pooled analysis of magnet fields, wire codes and childhood Leukaemia. (revolt)

Grigor'ev Iu.G (2003) [Biological effects of mobile phone electromagnetic field on chick embryo (risk assessment using the mortality rate)] [Article in Russian] Radiats Biol Radioecol Sep-Oct; 43(5): 541-543. (Pilette)

Grimaldi S et al. 2004. Influence of 50 Hz electromagnetic field on anurian (Xenopus laevis) Metamorphosis. The Scientific World Journal 4(S2):41:47. (Anselmo)

Guenel, P., Nicolau, J., Imbernon, E., Chevalier, A.and Goldberg, M., 1996: "Exposure to electric field and incidence of leukemia, brain tumors, and other cancers among French electric utility workers". Am J Epidemiol 144(12):1107-1121 - France electrical utility workers Brain tumour OR = 3.06 (1.08-8.74) n=69, 5 year latency OR = 3.69 (1.10-12.43). (buerg)

Guy, A.W., Chou, C.K., Kunz, L.L., Crowley, J, and Krupp, J., 1985: "Effects of long-term low-level radiofrequency radiation exposure on rats. Vol 9. Summary. University of Washington, USAFSAM-TR-85-64 - In May 1991 the United Kingdom's NRPB didn't find anything reliably significant in the long-term mouse study of Guy et al. (1985) in which found a significant increase in primary malignant tumors at an SAR of 0.4 W/kg. The U.S. E.P.A. internal review team found this study much more relevant and used it as an important support for their recommendation to classify RF/MW as a possible human carcinogen. (buerg)


Haarala C et al, (2007) Pulsed and continuous wave mobile phone exposure over left versus right hemisphere: Effects on human cognitive function., [Epub ahead of print](pwt)

Haider, T., Knasmueller, S., Kundi, M, and Haider, M., 1994: "Clastogenic effects of radiofrequency radiation on chromosomes of Tradescantia". Mutation Research, 324:65-68. (buerg)

Hallberg O, Johansson O, (2004) concluded that continuous disturbance of cell repair mechanisms by body-resonant FM electromagnetic fields seems to amplify the carcinogenic effects resulting from cell damage caused e.g. by UV-radiation. (Lai)

Hamblin DL, Wood AW (2002) Effects of mobile phones emissions on human brain activity and sleep variables, Int J Radiat Biol Aug;78(8): 659-669. (Pilette)

Hamblin DL, Wood AW, Croft RJ, Stough C (2004) Examining the effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by GSM mobile phones on human event-related potentials and performance during and auditory task, Clin Neurophysiol Jan;115(1):171-178. (Pilette)

Hamnerius Y, Rasmuson A,  Rasmuson B (1985) Biological effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on Salmonella typhimurium and Drosophila melanogaster, Bioelectromagnetics 6(4): 405-414. (Pilette)

Hansson H 1981. Lamellar bodies and purkinje nerve cells experimentally induced by electric field. Brain Research 216:187-191. (Anselmo)

Harakawa S, Takahashi I, Doge F & Martin DE (2004) Effect of a 50 Hz electric field on plasma ACTH, glucose, lactate, and pyruvate levels in stressed rats, Bioelectromag 25(5): 346-51- EMF changes stress response. (Anselmo)

Hardell L, Holmberg B, Malker H, Paulsson LE (1995) Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and the risk of malignant diseases--an evaluation of epidemiological and experimental findings, Eur J Cancer Prevention Sep; 4 Suppl 1:3-107 - concluded that there are possible associations between an increased risk of leukaemia in children and the existence of, or distance to, power lines in the vicinity of their residence, an increased risk of chronic lymphatic leukaemia and occupational exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields and, an increased risk of breast cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin, nervous system tumours, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, acute lymphatic leukaemia or acute myeloid leukaemia and certain occupations. (buerg)

Hardell L, Nasman A, Pahlson A, Hallquist A, Hansson Mild K (1999) Use of cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours: A case-contol study, Int J Oncol  Jul; 15(1): 113-116. (Pilette)

Hardell L, Hallquist A, Mild KH, Carlberg M, Pahlson A, Lilja A (2002a) Cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours, Eur J Cancer Prev Aug; 11(4): 377-386. (Pilette)

Hardell L, Mild KH, Carlberg M (2002b) Case-control study on the use of cellular and cordless phones and the risk for malignant brain tumours, Int J Radiat Biol  Oct; 78(10): 931-936. (Pilette)

Hardell L, Mild KH, Carlberg M (2003a) Further aspects on cellular and cordless telephones and brain tumours, Int J Oncol  Feb; 22(2):399-407. (Pilette)

Hardell L et al, (2003b) Vestibular schwannoma, tinnitus and cellular telephones, Neuroepidemiology Mar-Apr;22(2):124-9 (pwt)

Hardell L, Mild KH, Carlberg M, Hallquist A (2004) Cellular and cordless telephone use and the association with brain tumors in different age groups, Arch Environ Health Mar; 59(3): 132-137. (Pilette)

Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K (2005a) Case-control study on cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for acoustic neuroma or meningioma in patients diagnosed 2000-2003, Neuroepidemiology 25(3):120-128. (Pilette)

Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K (2005b) Use of cellular telephones and brain tumour risk in urban and rural areas, Occup Environ Med Jun; 62(6): 390-394. (Pilette)

Hardell L, Eriksson M, Carlberg M, Sundstrom C, Mild KH (2005c) Use of cellular or cordless telephones and the risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Int Arch Occup Environ Health Sep; 78(8): 625-632. (Pilette)

Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K (2006a) Pooled analysis of two case-control studies on  the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk of benign brain tumours diagnosed during 1997- 2003, Int J Oncol Feb; 28(2):509-518. (Pilette)

Hardell L, Carlberg M, Mild KH (2006b) Case-control study of the association between the use of cellular and cordless telephones and malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 2000-2003, Environ Res Feb; 100(2): 232-241. (Pilette)

Hardell L, Hansson Mild K (2006c) Mobile phone use and risk of acoustic neuroma : results of the interphone case-control study in five North European countries, Br J Cancer May 8; 94(9):1348-1349. (Pilette)

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Heikkinen P, Kosma VM, Alhonen L, Huuskonen H, Komulainen H, Kumlin T, Laitinen JT, Lang S, Puranen L, Juutilainen J (2003) Effects of mobile phone radiation on UV-induced skin tumourigenesis in ornithine decarboxylase transgenic and non-transgenic mice, Int J Radiat Biol  Apr; 79(4): 221-233. (Pilette)

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Hjollund et al. Reprod Toxicol 11(6):897,  1997 - sperm counts of Danish military personnel, who operated mobile ground-to-air missile units that use several RFR emitting radar systems (maximal mean exposure 0.01 mW/cm2), were significantly lower compared to references. (Lai)

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Huber R et al, (2002) Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG, J Sleep Res 2002 Dec;11(4):289-95 (pwt)

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Ivaschuk OI, Jones RA, Ishida-Jones T, Haggren Q, Adey WR and Phillips JL, 1997: "Exposure of nerve growth factor-treated PC12 rat pheochromscytoma cells to a modulated radiofrequency field at 836.55 MHz: effects on c-jun and c-fos expression". Bioelectromagnetics 18(3): 223-229 - Cell phone radiation (836.55 MHz) significantly altered c-jun transcript levels. (buerg)


6.    Jacobson, C.B., 1969: Progress report on SCC 31732, (Cytogenic analysis of blood from the staff at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow), George Washington University, Reproductive Genetics Unit, Dept. of Obstertics and Genocolgy, February 4, 1969 – found significant alterations in white and red blood cell counts. (buerg)
7.    Jeong JH et al. 2000. Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on pain thresholds in mice: roles of melatonin and opioids. J Auto Pharmacol 20:259-264. (Anselmo)      
8.    Jeong JH et al. 2005. Influence of exposure to electromagnetic field on the cardiovascular system. Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology 25:17-23. (Anselmo)
9.    Johansen, C. and Olsen, J.H., 1998: "Risk of cancer among Danish utility workers - a nationwide cohort study". Am J Epidemiol 147(6):548-555 - Danish Utility Workers; Women SIR = 1.3 (0.7-2.2) n=15, Women >10yrs < 0.09 µT SIR = 1.9 n=4, 0.1-0.29 µT SIR = 9.2 p<0.05 n=2. (buerg)
10.    Johanson, C., Kock-Henriksen, N., Rasmussen, S. and Olsen, J.H., 1999: "Multiple Sclerosis among utility workers", Neurology, 52: 1279-1282 - They investigated the incidence of Multiple Sclerosis among utility workers. With 32 cases of MS diagnosed when 23.7 were expected, they found a Standardized Incidence Ratio, SIR = 1.35, 95%CI: 0.92-1.91. They then conclude: "We found no support for the hypothesis of an association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and the risk of MS." [However, what do we conclude if we look closely at their data?] Based on only 14 cases, for low, medium and high exposures they observed SIRs of 0.8, 1.4 and 1.6. This is a remarkable result with a biological gradient. This "admits of a simple explanation and puts the case in a clearer light". Actually this study provides very strong support for the hypothesis. Along with several other studies it supports the cause and effect hypothesis. (buerg)
11.    Johnson-Liakouris, A.J.. 1998: "Radiofrequency (RF) Sickness in the Lilienfeld Study: an effect of modulated microwaves". Arch Environ Heath 53(3):236-238 - identified significant dose-response relationships for the following symptoms from the use of mobile phones: Memory Loss, Difficulty in Concentrating, Headache, Fatigue. (buerg)
12.    Johnson CC and Spitz CC, 1989: "Childhood nervous system tumors: an assessment of risk associated with parental operations involving use, repair or manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment". Int J Epidemiol, Vol 18, p 756 - an increased incidence of malignant brain tumors has been reported in children of fathers exposed to electromagnetic fields and electronic solvents. (verdinrete) (buerg)
13.    Juutilainen, J., Matilainen, P., Saarikoski, S., Laara, E. and Suonio, S., 1993: "Early pregnancy loss and exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields". Bioelectromagnetics, 14(3): 229-236 - observed a significant early pregnancy loss associated with "high" residential 50 Hz exposures (( 0,63 µT at the front door), OR = 5.1 (1.0-25). (buerg)
14.    Juutilainen, J., Stevens, R.G., Anderson, L.E., Hansen, N.H., Kilpelainen, M., Laitinen, J.T., Sobel, E. and Wilson, B.W., 2000: "Nocturnal 6-hydroxymelatonin sulphate excretion in female workers exposed to magnetic fields". J Pineal Res 28(2): 97-104. (buerg)

15.    Kaczmarek, L.K. and Adey, W.R., 1973: "The efflux of 45Ca2+ and 3H-gamma-aminobutyric acid from cat cerebral cortex". Brain Research, 63: 331-342 - showed that weak oscillating electric gradients, no larger than the EEG (50-100 mV/cm), increase efflux of calcium ions and GABA from cat cerebral cortex by almost 20%. Cellular calcium ions play many vital roles in cell growth and development regulation. Hence the ability of EMR to induce changes in cellular calcium ions is fundamentally important in assessing the biological mechanisms which contribute to adverse health effects. (buerg)
16.    Kallen, B., Malmquist, G., and Moritz, U., 1982: "Delivery Outcome among Physiotherapists in Sweden: is Non-ionizing Radiation a Fetal Hazard? Archives of Environmental Health, 37(2): 81-84 - report significant increases in malformed children and perinatal deaths for physiotherapists using RF diathermy. (buerg)
17.    Kaplan, S., Etlin, S., Novkov, I, and Modan, B., 1997: "Occupational risks for the development of brain tumors. Am. J. Ind. Med. 31: 15-20 - found an elevated risk of brain tumour (OR=2.2 (0.5-9.3)). (buerg)
18.    Karasek, M., Woldanska-Okonska, M., Czernicki, J., Zylinska, K. and Swietoslawski, J., 1998: "Chronic exposure to 2.9 mT, 40 Hz magnetic field reduces melatonin concentrations in humans". J Pineal Research 25(4): 240-244. (buerg)
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20.    Kato M, Homna KI, Shigemitsu T & Shiga Y 1991. Effects of exposure to a circularly polarized, 50 Hz magnetic fields on melatonin levels in rats. Bioelectromag 14:97-106. (Anselmo)        
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22.    Katsouyanni K and Pershagen G, “Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Cancer”, Cancer Causes and Control 1997; 8 284-291 - risk assessment based on increased exposure to air pollution via corona ion effects. (revolt)
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24.    Kazakova LG, Svetlova S Yu., Subbotina TI, Yashin AA, Morphological and biophysical analysis of bone marrow blood production in rats under the influence of low-intensity electromagnetic EHF radiation. Vestnik novykh meditsinskikh tekhnologiy VI(3-4):38-41,1999.70 - Suppression of blood formation in rats, all the way to aplastic condition of the red bone marrow. (ussr)
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26.    Khaili, A.M. and Qassem, W., 1991: "Cytogenetic effects of pulsing electromagnetic field on human lymphocytes in vitro: chromosome aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges and cell kinetics". Mutat Res 247: 141-146 – reports significant chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes exposed to 50 Hz fields. (buerg)
27.    Kheifets LI, Afifi A, Buffler P & Zhang Z 1995. Occupational electric and magnetic field exposure and brain cancer: a meta-analysis. J Occup Env Med 37:1327-1341. (Anselmo)
28.    Kirk JH, Reese ND, Bartlett PC (1984) Stray voltage on Michigan dairy farms, J Am Vet Med Assoc Aug 15; 185(4): 426-428. (Pilette)
29.    Kirschvink J, Padmanabha S, Boyce C, Oglesby J (1997) Measurement of the threshold sensitivity of honeybees to weak, extremely low-frequency magnetic fields, J Exp Biol 200 (Pt 9): 1363 -1368. (Pilette)
30.    Kittel A, Siklos L, Thuroczy G, Somosy Z (1996) Qualitative enzyme histochemistry and microanalysis reveals changes in ultrastructural distribution of calcium and calcium-activated ATPases after microwave irradiation of the medial habenula, Acta Neuropathol (Berl.) Oct; 92(4):362-368. (Pilette)
31.    Koivisto M, Krause CM, Revonsuo A, Laine M, Hamalainen H (2000) The effects of electromagnetic field emitted by GSM phones on working memory, Neuroreport Jun 5;11(8): 1641-1643. (Pilette)
32.    Kolmodin-Hedman B, Mild KH, Jonsson E, Andersson M-C, Eriksson A (1988) Health problems among operators of plastic welding machines and exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, Int Arch Occup Environ Health 60(4): 243-247 - Increased rates of paraesthesia in hands, neurasthenia and eye complaints, using 27 MHz  plastic welders and sewing machines. (buerg)
33.    Kolodynski  and Kolodynska (1996) Sci Total Environ 180(1):87-93 – school children who lived in front of a radio station had less developed memory and attention, their reaction time was slower, and their neuromuscular apparatus endurance was decreased. (Lai)
34.    Korotkov Iu.S, Burenkova LA, Burenkov MS, Pichugin V.Iu (2000) [The impact of electromagnetic radiation at microwave frequency (9.8 HhZ) on the embryonic and postembryonic development of the tick Hyalomna asiaticum (Acarina, Ixodidae)] [Article in Russian] Med Parazitol (Mosk) Jan-Mar; (1): 38-42. (Pilette)
35.    Koylu H et al, (2006) Melatonin modulates 900 Mhz microwave-induced lipid peroxidation changes in rat brain, Toxicol Ind Health 2006 Jun;22(5):211-6 (pwt)
36.    Kramarenko AV, Tan U (2003) Effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on human EEG: a brain mapping study, Int J Neurosci  Jul;113(7):1007-1019. (Pilette)
37.    Krause CM, Sillanmaki L, Koivisto M, Haggqvist A, Saarela C, Revonsuo A, Laine M, Hamalainen H (2000) Effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phones on the EEG during a memory task, Neuroreport Mar 20; 11(4):761-764. (Pilette)
38.    Krause CM, Sillanmaki L, Koivisto M, Haggqvist A, Saarela C, Revonsuo A, Laine M, Hamalainen H (2000) Effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phones on the electroencephalogram during a visual working memory task, Int J Radiat Biol Dec; 76(12):1659-1667. (Pilette)
39.    Krause CM, Haarala C, Sillanmaki L, Koivisto M, Alanko K, Revonsuo A, Laine M, Hamalainen H (2004) Effects of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on the EEG during an auditory memory task: a double blind replication study, Bioelectromagnetics Jan; 25(1): 33-40. (Pilette)
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43.    Kraut, A., Tate, R. and Tran, N.M., 1994: "Residential electric consumption and childhood cancer in Canada (1971-1986)". Arch Environ Health 49(3): 156-159 - Canada, Provincial Residential Electric Consumption (REC), childhood brain cancer significantly increases with REC in a dose-response manner. (buerg)
44.    Kubinyi G, Thuroczy G, Bakos J, Boloni E, Sinay H, Szabo Ld (1996) Effect of continuous-wave and amplitude-modulated 2.45 GHz micro-wave radiation on the liver and brain aminoacyl-transfer RNA synthetases of in utero exposed mice, Bioelectromagnetics 17(6):497-503. (Pilette)
45.    Kundi M, Mild K, Hardell L, Mattsson MO (2004) Mobile telephones and cancer-a review of epidemiological evidence, J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev Sep-Oct; 7(5):351-384. (Pilette)
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1.    Lagroye, I, and Poncy J.L., 1998: "Influences of 50 Hz magnetic fields and ionizing radiation on c-jun and c-fos oncoproteins". Bioelectromagnetics 19(2): 112-116 - 50/60 Hz signals altered c-jun and c-fos gene expression. (buerg)
2.    Lahijani MS, Ghafoori M (2000) Teratogenic effects of sinusoidal extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields  on morphology of 24 hr chick embryos, Indian J Exp Biol Jul; 38(7): 692-699. (Pilette)
3.    Lahijani MS, Sajadi K (2004) Development of preincubated chicken eggs following exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields with 1.33-7.32 mT flux densities, Indian J Exp Biol Sep; 42(9): 858-865. (Pilette)
4.    Lai H, Horita A, Guy AW (1994) Microwave irradiation affects radial-arm maze performance in the rat, Bioelectromagnetics 15(2): 95-104. (Pilette)
5.    Lai H and Singh NP (1995) Acute low-intensity microwave exposure increases DNA single-strand breaks in rat brain cells, Bioelectromagnetics Vol 16, pp 207-210 - They observed single and double strand breaks in a dose-response manner, and identified the involvement of free radicals and the protective effect of melatonin. (buerg)
6.    Lai H, Singh NP (1996) Single- and double-strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, Int J Rad Bio 69 (4): 513-521 - They observed single and double strand breaks in a dose-response manner, and identified the involvement of free radicals and the protective effect of melatonin. (buerg)
7.    Lai H, Singh NP (1997a) Melatonin and N-tert-butyl-a-phenylnitrone Block 60 Hz magnetic field-induced DNA single- and double-strands Breaks in Rat Brain Cells, J Pineal Res 22:152-162 - showed that ELF and microwave exposures involve free radical damage of DNA-strands. (buerg)
8.    Lai H, Singh NP (1997b) Melatonin and Spin-Trap compound Block Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation-induced DNA Strands Breaks in Rat Brain Cells. Bioelectromagnetics 18:446-454 - showed that ELF and microwave exposures involve free radical damage of DNA-strands. (buerg)
9.    Lai H, Singh NP (2004a) Magnetic-Field-induced DNA Strand Breaks in Brain Cells of the Rat, Environ Health Persp May; 112(6):687-94
10.    Lai  H (2004b) Interaction of microwaves an a temporally incoherent magnetic field on spatial learning in the rat, Physiol Behav Oct 15; 82(5): 785-789. (Pilette)
11.    Lancranjan I, Maicanescu M, Rafaila E, Klespsch I, Popescu HI (1975) Gonadic function in workmen with long-term exposure to microwaves, Health Physics 29(3): 381-383 - studied 31 young men, average age 33 yr, with long-term (mean 8 yr) exposure to microwaves. This investigation showed a high frequency of libido decrease and sexual dynamic disturbances in the framework of asthenic syndrome (70% of subjects) as well as various alterations of spermatogenesis (p<0.001) in 74% of the subjects. Exposures were to frequencies in the range of tens to hundreds of µW/cm², and hence were non-thermal. (buerg)
12.    Larsen AI, Olsen J, Svane O (1991) Gender specific reproductive outcome and exposure to high frequency electromagnetic radiation among physiotherapists, Scand J Work Environ Health Vol.17, pp 324-329 - observed very few boys, and many more perinatal deaths, premature births and low birthweight children for therapists using shortwave diathermy. (buerg)
13.    Lebedeva et al. (2000) Crit Rev Biomed Eng, 28(1-2):323-337 - brain wave activation was observed in human subjects exposed to cellular phone RFR at 0.06 mW/cm2. (Lai)
14.    Lebedeva NN, Sulimov AV, Sulimova OP, Korotkovskaya TI, Gailus T (2001) Investigation of brain potentials in sleeping humans exposed to the electromagnetic field of mobile phones, Crit Rev Biomed Eng 29(1):125-133. (Pilette)
15.    Lee JS, Ahn SS, Jung KC, Kim YW & Lee SK 2004. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic field exposure on testicular germ cell apoptosis in mice. Asian J Androl 6:29-34. (Anselmo)    
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18.    Lester, J.R., and Moore, D.F., 1982b: "Cancer mortality and air force bases". Journal of Bioelectricity, 1(1):77-82. (buerg)
19.    Lester, J.R., 1985: "Reply to: Cancer mortality and air force bases, a reevaluation". Journal of Bioelectricity, 4(1):129-131. (buerg)
20.    Leszczynski D, Joenvaara S, Reivinen J, Kuokka R (2002) Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells : molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects, Differentiation May; 70(2-3):120-129. (Pilette)
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24.    Liburdy RP et al (1993) ELF Magnetic Fields, Breast Cancer and melatonin. (revolt)
25.    Lilienfeld, A.M., Tonascia, J., and Tonascia S., Libauer, C.A., and Cauthen, G.M., 1978: "Foreign Service health status study - evaluation of health status of foreign service and other employees from selected eastern European posts". Final Report (Contract number 6025-619073) to the U.S. Dept of State, July 31, 1978 - United States Embassy in Moscow: Radar RF/MW exposure, Males Working in the Embassy SMR = 20 (2.4-72.2) , p<0.01 n=2. This paper is widely claimed to show no effects when its data does show significant adverse human health effects, including neurological, cardiac and cancer effects and includes a significant dose-response relationship for rates of sickness as a function of years in Moscow. (buerg)
26.    Lin RS, Dischinger PC, Conde J et al., 1985: "Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and the occurrence of brain tumors", J Occup Med, 27: 413-419 - Fifty cases of glioma and astrocytoma were observed among electrical workers exposed to EMR compared to an expected number of 18, i.e. an risk ratio of 2.8. (buerg)
27.    Lindbohm, M-L,, Hietanen, M., Kyyronen, P., Sallmen, M., von Nandelstadh, P., Taskinen, H., Pekkarinen, M., Ylikoski, M. and Hemminki, K., 1992: "Magnetic fields of video display terminals and spontaneous abortion". Am J Epidemiol 136:1041-1051 - observed a dose-response relationship between the level of exposure to VDTs and miscarriage. VDTs also emit RF radiation. (buerg)
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38.    Loomis D, Kromhout H, Kleckner R & Savitz D 1998. Effects of the analytical treatment of exposure data on association of cancer and occupational magnetic field exposure. Am J Ind Med 34:49-56. (Anselmo)
39.    Lopez-Martin E, Relova-Quinteiro JL, Gallego-Gomez R, Peleteiro-Fernandez M, Joge-Barreiro FJ, Ares-Pena FJ (2006) GSM radiation triggers seizures and increases cerebral c-Fos positivity in rats pretreated with subconvulsive doses of picrotoxin, Neurosci Letter May 1; 398(1-2):139-144. (Pilette)
40.    Löscher, W. and Käs, G., 1998: "Conspicuous behavioural abnormalities in a dairy cow herd near a TV and radio transmitting antenna". Prakt. Tierarzt 79(5): 437-444 [In German]. [Practical Veterinary Surgeon 79(5): 437-444.] - The significant bovine behavioural effects of extremely low RF exposure (Stark 1997) is confirmed. (buerg)
41.    Loughran SP, Wood AW, Barton JM, Croft RJ, Thompson B, Stough C (2005) The effect of electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones on human sleep, Neuroreport Nov 28; 16(17):1973-1976. (Pilette)
42.    Luben RA, Saraiya S and Morgan AP (1996) Replication of 1.2 microtesla EMF Effects on Melatonin Responses of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells in vitro. (revolt)
43.    Lucena ACT, Anselmo CWSF, Oliveira IM, Filho MB & Catanho MTJA 2002. Effects of 60 Hz Electric Magnetic Field on the Immune System in the Wistar Rats, pp. 837-845. Biological Effects of EMFs 2nd International Workshop, v.II Rhodes, Greece. (Anselmo)
44.    Lushnikov KV, Gapeev AB, Sadovnikov VB, Cheremis NK (2001) [“Effect of extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation of low intensity on parameters of humoral immunity in healthy mice”] [Article in Russian] Biofizika Jul-Aug; 46(4):753-760. (Pilette)
45.    Lyle DB, Schechter P, Adey WR, Lundak RL (1983) Suppression of T-lymphocyte cytotoxicity following exposure to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated fields, Bioelectromagnetics 4(3): 281-292. (Pilette)
46.    Lyle DB, Fuchs TA, Casamento JP, Davis CC, Swicord ML (1997) Intracellular calcium signaling by Jurkat T-lymphocytes exposed to a 60 Hz magnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics 18(6):439-445. (Pilette)


47.    Maby E, Le Bouquin Jeannes R, Liegeois-Chauvel C, Gourevitch B, Faucon G (2004) Analysis of auditory evoked potential parameters in the presence of radiofrequency fields using a support vector machines method, Med Biol Eng Comput Jul; 42(4):562-568. (Pilette)
48.    Maby E, Le Bouquin Jeannes R, Faucon G, Liegeois-Chauvel C, De Seze R (2005) Effects of GSM signals on auditory evoked responses, Bioelectromagnetics Jul;26(5): 341-350. (Pilette)
49.    Maby E, Jeannes R Le B, Faucon G (2006) Scalp localization of human auditory cortical activity modified by GSM electromagnetic fields, Int J Radiat Biol Jul;82(7):465-472. (Pilette)
50.    Mack, W., Preston-Martin, S. & Peters, J.; Astrocytoma Risk Related to Job Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. Bioelectromagnetics 12:57-66, 1991 - An increased number of large astrocytes appeared in the brains of rabbits reared in substations. Human astrocytoma (an infrequent brain cancer) occurs ten times more often in those occupationally exposed to magnetic fields than in controls. (Guru)
51.    Maes A, Verschaeve L, Arroyo A, De Wagter C, Vercruyssen L (1993) In vitro cytogenetic effects of 2450 Mhz waves on human peripheral blood lymphocytes, Bioelectromagnetics 14(6): 495-501. (Pilette)
52.    Maes A, Collier M, Slaets D, Verschaeve L (1996) 954 MHz microwaves enhance the mutagenic properties of mitomycin C, Environ Mol Mutagen 28(1):26-30. (Pilette)
53.    Magone I (1996) The effect of electromagnetic radiation from the Skrunda Radio Location Station on Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden cultures, The Science of the Total Environment Vol 180, pp 75-80 - Chromosome and reproductive damage in plants exposed RF/MW in the range 0.042 to 6.6 µW/cm². (buerg)
54.    Magras, I.N. and Xenos, T.D., 1997: "RF radiation-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice". Bioelectromagnetics, 18: 455-461 - Results range from testicular degeneration, resorption of the fetus and altered body weight at high but non-thermal levels of exposure to total infertility in multigenerational studies of mice exposed to 0.168 µW/cm² and 1.053 µW/cm². Responding to health concerns among residents living in the vicinity of an RF transmission tower in Greece, by placing groups of mice at various locations in relation to the tower. The mice fertility was monitored over several generations and related to the RF exposure. The Low exposure group (0.168 µW/cm²) became infertile after 5 generations and the High exposure group (1.053 µW/cm²), became infertile after only 3 generations. This is a highly significant result because so few multi-generation studies have been done and the effects of this study occur at extremely low levels and the effect is total infertility. (buerg)
55.    Magras and Xenos  Bioelectromagnetics 18(6):455-461, 1999 - reported a decrease in reproductive function in mice exposed to RFR at power densities of 0.000168 - 0.001053 mW/cm2.  Irreversible sterility was found in the fifth generation of offspring. (Lai)
56.    Maier R, Greter SE, Schaller G, Hommel G (2004) [The effects of pulsed low-level EM fields on memory processes][Article in German] Z Med Phys 14(2):105-112. (Pilette)
57.    Maier R, Greter SE, Maier N (2004) Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on cognitive processes – a pilot study on pulsed field interference with cognitive regeneration, Acta Neurol Scand Jul; 110(1): 46-52. (Pilette)
58.    Malinina ES, Mikhailenok EL, Suvorov NB, Bogdanov OV, Vasilevskii NN (1991) [The effect of microwaves on the neuronal activity of the hyperstriatum in chick embryos at the critical developmental period] [Article in Russian] Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol May-Jun; 27(3): 320-324. (Pilette)
59.    Mancinelli F, Caraglia M, Abbruzzese A, D'ambrosio G, Massa R, Bismuto E (2004) Non-thermal effects of electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequency on the refolding of an intracellular protein : myoglobin, J Cell Biochem, Sep 1;93(1):188-196. (Pilette)
60.    Mann K, Roschkle J (1996) Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on human sleep, Neuropsychobiology 33: 41-47 –  showed the cell phones alter the human EEG and interfere with REM sleep. Impairment of REM sleep is associated with memory and learning difficulties. (buerg)
61.    Mann et al. (1998) Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on the neuroendocrine system, Neuroendocrinology 67(2):139-144 - a transient increase in blood cortisol was observed in human subjects exposed to cellular phone RFR at 0.02 mW/cm2. Cortisol is a hormone involved in stress reaction. (Lai)
62.    Mann K, Roschke J (2004) Sleep under exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields, Sleep Med Rev Apr; 8(2): 95-107. (Pilette)
63.    Marinelli et al. J Cell Physiol. 198(2):324-332, 2004 - exposure to 900-MHz RFR at 0.0035 W/kg affected cell’s self-defense responses. (Lai)
64.    Marino AA, Berger TJ, Austin BP, Becker RO & Hart FX 1977. In vivo bioelectrochemical change associated with exposure to extremely low frequency electric fields. Physiol Chem Phys 9:433. (Anselmo)
65.    Marki DI (1980) Research conducted in the USSR in the field of biological action of EHF radiation, IEEE, 68(1): 96-104 - Kidney cells change in morphology, destruction of membranes, degeneration of protoplasm, reduction of viability. (ussr)
66.    Markova  E, Hillert L, Malmgren L, Persson BR, Belyaev IY (2005) Microwaves from GSM mobile telephones affect 53BP1 and gamma-H2AX foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons, Environ Health Perspect Sep;113(9): 1172-1177. (Pilette)
67.    Marks TA, Ratke CC, English WO (1995) Stray voltage and developmental, reproductive and other toxicology problems in dogs, cats and cows: a discussion, Vet Hum Toxicol Apr; 37(2): 163-172. (Pilette)
68.    Maskarinec G and Cooper J, 1993: "Investigation of a childhood leukemia cluster near low-frequency radio towers in Hawaii". SER Meeting, Keystone, Colorado, June 16-18, 1993. Am. J. Epidemiology, 138:666, 1993 - in 1985 an unusual number of children with leukaemia were identified living in the vicinity of broadcasting facilities (OR = 3.4: CI=0.70­ -16.41) (buerg)
69.    Massot O et al. 2000. Magnetic field desensitizes 5-HT1B receptor in brain: pharmacological and functional studies. Brain Research 858:143-150. (Anselmo)
70.    Matanoski, G.M.; Cancer incidence in New York telephone workers, Poster at contractors review meeting. Portland, OR, Nov 15, 1989 (Guru)
71.    Matanoski, G.M.; Electromagnetic field exposure and male breast cancer. Lancet Vol 337: pp 737, Mar 23, 1991 - New York telephone cable splicers received a mean daily EMF exposure of 4.3 mG (milligauss). They had 111% more colon cancer, 165% more leukemia, 100% more brain cancer and 145% more prostate cancer than controls. (Guru)
72.    Mattos, I.E. and Koifman, S., 1996: "Cancer mortality among electricity utility workers in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil". Rev Saude Publica 30(6):564-575. (buerg)
73.    McDowall ME 1983. Leukemia mortality in electrical workers in England and Wales. Lancet (i):246. (Anselmo)
74.    Mcdowall ME (1986) mortality of persons resident in the vicinity of electricity transmission facilities, Br J Cancer 53: 271-279 (revolt)
75.    McLauchlan KA 1992. Are environmental magnetic fields dangerous? Phys World January, 41-45. (Anselmo)
76.    Méndez AC et al. 1992. Effecto de las radiaciones electromagneticas no ionizantes sobre la imunidad humoral y celular em trabajadores expuestos. Ver Cub Méd Militar 21(2):85-92. (Anselmo)
77.    Michelozzi, P., Ancona, C., Fusco, D., Forastiere, F. and Perucci, C.A., 1998: "Risk of leukamia and residence near a radio transmitter in Italy". ISEE/ISEA 1998 Conference, Boston Mass. Paper 354 P., Abstract in Epidemiology 9(4):S111 – leukemia mortality within 3.5 km (5,863 inhabitants) near a high power radio-transmitter in a peripheral area of Rome was higher than expected. (Lai; buerg)
78.    Michelozzi et al.  Am J Epidemiol 155(12):1096-1103, 2002 - childhood leukemia higher at a distance up to 6 km from a radio station. (Lai)
79.    Mild, K.H., Oftedal, G., Sandstrom, M., Wilen, J., Tynes, T., Haugsdal, B. and Hauger E., 1998: "Comparison of symptoms by users of analogue and digital mobile phones - A Swedish-Norwegian epidemiological study". National Institute for working life, 1998:23, Umea, Sweden, 84pp - cell phone users exhibit a significant dose response increase in neurological symptoms, including dizziness, memory loss, loss of concentration and headaches. (buerg)
80.    Milham S 1982. Mortality from leukemia in workers exposed to electrical and magnetic fields. NEJM 307:249. (Anselmo)
81.    Milham S (1985) Mortality in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields, Env Health Persp 62:297-300. - studied cancer rates in 486,000 adult male workers who were in occupations in Washington State which had potential exposures to electromagnetic fields. This showed elevated and significantly elevated cancer rates in many body organs. (buerg)
82.    Milham, S., 1988: "Increased mortality in amateur radio operators due to lymphatic and hematopoietic malignancies". Am. J. Epidemiology, Vol 127, No.1, pp 50-54 - studied 67,829 amateur radio operators in Washington State and California. (buerg)
83.    Milham, S., 1996: "Increased incidence of cancer in a cohort of office workers exposed to strong magnetic fields". Am. J. Ind. Med. 30(6): 702-704 - United States, office workers, transformer fields SIR = 389 (156-801) N=410. (buerg)
84.    Milham S & Ossiander EM, 2001, “Historical evidence that residential electrification caused the emergence of the childhood leukemia peak”, Medical Hypotheses Mar; 56(3):290-5. (pwt)
85.    Miller, A.B., To T., Agnew, D.A., Wall, C. and Green L.M., 1996: "Leukemia following occupational exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields among Ontario electric utility workers". Am J Epidemiol 144(2):150-160 - Ontario Hydro male employees (Adjusted ORs); Brain Tumour Mod. Field OR = 1.27 (0.32-5.41); High Field OR = 1.33 (0.52 -10.8) Both show trends; Benign Brain Mod. Field OR = 5.38 (0.42-69.3); Tumour High Field OR = 5.64 (0.3-105). (buerg)
86.    Monfrecola G, Moffa G, Procaccini EM (2003) Non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations, emitted by a cellular phone, modify cutaneous blood flow, Dermatology 207 (1):10-14. (Pilette)
87.    Montenegro EJN, Dantas MC, Hirakawa PRTR, Castro RM & Castro CMMB 2003. Efeito dos campos eletromagnéticos não ionizantes no sistema imune, [Portuguese] Anais da Faculdade de Medicina Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 48(2):148-151. (Anselmo)
88.    Moszczynski P, Lisiewicz J, Dmoch A, Zabinski Z, Bergier L, Rucinska M and Sasiadek U, 1999: "The effect of various occupational exposures to microwave radiation on the concentrations of immunoglobulins and T lymphocyte subsets". Wiad Lek 52(1-2):30-34 - observed increased IgG and IgA and decreased lymphocytes and T8 cells in TV signal exposed workers. (buerg)
89.    Myers, A., Clayden, A.D., Cartwright, R.A. & Cartwright, S.C.; Childhood cancer and overhead powerlines: a case-control study. Br. J. Cancer Vol 62(6), pp. 1008-1014, Dec. 1990 - An 115% increase in lung cancer death was noted in among British persons living within 14 meters of electrical installations. (Guru)


1.    Nakamura, H., Seto,T., Nagase, H., Yoshida, M., Dan, S. and Ogina, K., 1997: "Effects of exposure to microwaves on cellular immunity and placental steroids in pregnant rats. Occup Environ Med 54(9): 676-680 - Rats exposed to microwaves showed a significant reduction in splenic activity of natural killer (NK) cells. (buerg)
2.    Nam KC, Kim SW, Kim SC, Kim DW (2006) Effects of RF exposure of teenagers and adults by CDMA cellular phones, Bioelectromagnetics Oct; 27(7): 509-514. (Pilette)
3.    National Radiobiological Protection Board 1992. Electromagnetic fields and the risk of cancer: Report of an Advisory Group on Non-ionizing Radiation. Chilton, UK, Documents 3(1) – found increased brain tumours and leukaemia in electrical workers in G Britain. (Anselmo)
4.    Navakatikian and Tomashevskaya “Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields, Volume 1," D.O. Carpenter (ed) Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp.333-342. 1994 - RFR at low intensities (0.01 - 0.1 mW/cm2; 0.0027- 0.027 W/kg) induced behavioral and endocrine changes in rats. Decreases in blood concentrations of testosterone and insulin were reported. (Lai)
5.    Navarro EA, Segura J, Portoles M, Gomez-Perretta De Mateo C (2003) The microwave syndrome: A preliminary study in Spain, Electromagn Biol Med 22(1): 161-169. (Pilette)
6.    Neubauer C, Phelan AM, Kues H, Lange DG (1990) Microwave irradiation of rats at 2.45 GHz activates pinocytic-like uptake of tracer by capillary endothelial cells of cerebral cortex, Bioelectromagnetics 11(4): 261-268. (Pilette)
7.    Nikitina HG & Andrienko LG (1989) “Condition of reproductive functions in experimental animals under the influence of electromagnetic radiation of mm waves”, Fundamental and Applied aspects of Use of mmElectromagnetic Radiation in Medicine, Proceedings of the 1st All-Union Symposium with International Participation (10-13 May, Kiev). Kiev: VNK “Otklik,” pp. 288-289 - The reproductive functions of experimental animals were studied under the influence of millimeter wave EMR: EFD of 60, 25 and 10 μW/cm2, irradiation for four months. Under EFD of 60 μW/cm2, disturbance of female cycles; reduction in fertility, number and weight of offspring; increase in postnatal deaths of the rat pups by a factor of 2.5; and dystrophic changes in the reproductive organs of the animals were noted. (ussr)
8.    Nikolova T, Czyz J, Rolletschek A, Blyszczuk P, Fuchs J, Jovtchev G, Schuderer J, Kuster N, Wobus AM (2005) Electromagnetic fields affect transcrip levels of apoptosis-related genes in embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells, FASEB J Oct; 19(12):1686-1688. (Pilette)
9.    Nilsson, R., Hamnerius, Y., Mild, K.H., Hannson, H-A., Hjelmqvist, E., Olanders, S., and Persson, L.I., 1989: " Microwave effects on the central nervous system - a study of radar mechanics". Health Physics, Vol 56 (5), pp 777-779 - Increased protein band in CSF in exposed group or radar mechanics. (buerg)
10.    Nordenson, I., Mild, K.H., Nordstrom, S., Sweins, A. and Birke, E., 1984: "Clastogenic effects in human lymphocytes of power frequency electric fields". Radiat Environ Biophys 23(3): 191-201. (buerg)
11.    Nordenson, I., Mild, K.H., Ostman, U. and Ljungberg, H., 1988: "Chromosome effects in lymphocytes of 400 kV-substation workers". Radiat Environ Biophys 27(1): 39-47 - found significant chromosome aberrations in 400 kV-substation workers and with 50 Hz exposures to peripheral human lymphocytes. (buerg)
12.    Nordenson, I., Mild, K.H., Andersson, G., and Sandstrom, M., 1994: "Chromosomal aberrations in human amniotic cells after intermittent exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields". Bioelectromagnetics 15(4):293-301. (buerg)
13.    Nordstrom, S., Birke, E. and Gustavsson, L., 1983: "Reproductive hazards among workers at high voltage substations". Bioelectromagnetics, 4(1): 91-101 - observed a significant decrease in "normal" pregnancies in high voltage substations in Sweden, almost exclusively as a result of congenital malformations when the father was a high voltage switchyard worker. (buerg)
14.    Novoselova et al. (1999) Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 49(1): 37-41 - low intensity RFR (0.001 mW/cm2) affects functions of the immune system. (Lai)
15.    Nylund R, Leszczynski D (2004) Proteomics analysis of human endothelial cell line E.A.hy926 after exposure to GSM 900 radiation, Proteomics May; 4(5): 1359-1365. (Pilette)
16.    Nylund R, Leszcynski D, (2006) Mobile phone radiation causes changes in gene and protein expression in human endothelial cell lines and the response seems to be genome- and proteome-dependent, Proteomics 2006 Sep; 6(17):4769-80 (pwt)


17.    Oktay MF, Dasdag S (2006) Effects of intensive and moderate cellular phone use on hearing function, Electromagn Biol Med 25(1):13-21. (Pilette)
18.    Olsen, J.H., Nielson, A. and Schulgen, G., 1993: "Residence near high voltage facilities and risk of cancer in children". BMJ 307:891-895 - Children, >0.4 µT Significantly increased cancer, including CNS tumours. (buerg)
19.    Oscar KJ, Hawkins TD (1977) Microwave alteration of the blood-brain barrier system of rats, Brain Res May 6; 126(2) 281-293. (Pilette)
20.    Oscar KJ, Gruenau SP, Folker MT,  Rapoport SI (1981) Local cerebral blood flow after microwave exposure, Brain Res Jan 5; 204(1): 220-225. (Pilette)
21.    Ouellet-Hellstrom, R. and Stewart, W.F., 1993: "Miscarriages among Female Physical Therapists who report using radio- and microwave- frequency electromagnetic radiation." Am J Epidemiol, 138 (10): 775-86 - In a case-controlled study 1,753 cases were matched with 1,753 controls with results showing that pregnancies of mothers reporting microwave use 6 months prior to the pregnancy or during the first trimester were more likely to result in miscarriage.  The odds ratio also increased with increasing levels of exposure. They observe a significant dose-response increase in first trimester miscarriage for female therapists using microwave diathermy. Following the Bradford Hill guidance, this is indicative of a cause and effect relationship. (buerg)
22.    Ozguner F, Altinbas  A, Ozaydin M, Dogan A, Vural H, Kisioglu AN, Cesur G, Yildirim NG (2005) Mobile phone-induced myocardial oxidative stress: protection by a novel antioxidant agent caffeic acid phenethyl ester, Toxicol Ind Health Oct;21(9): 223-230. (Pilette)


23.    Pacini S, Ruggiero M, Sardi I, Aterini S, Gulisano F, Gulisano M (2002) Exposure to global system for mobile communication (GSM) cellular phone radiofrequency alters gene expression, proliferation, and morphology of human skin fibroblasts, Oncol Res ;13(1): 19-24. (Pilette)
24.    Panagopoulos D et al, (2004) Effect of GSM 900-MHz Mobile Phone radiation on the reproductive capacity of Drosophila melanogaster, Electromagn Biol Med 23(1): 29-43 (pwt)
25.    Panagopoulos D et al, (2006) Cell death induced by GSM 900-MHz and DCS 1800-MHz mobile telephony radiation, Mutat Res 2006 Oct 10 (pwt)
26.    Papageorgiou CC, Nanou ED, Tsiafakis VG, Kapareliotis E, Kontoangelos KA, Capsalis CN, Rabavilas AD, Soldatos CR (2006) Acute mobile phone effects on pre-attentive operation, Neurosci Lett Apr 10-17; 397 (1-2): 99-103. (Pilette)
27.    Park, R.M., Silverstein, M.A., Green, M.A. and Mirer, F.E., 1990: "Brain cancer mortality at a manufacture of aerospace electrochemical systems". Am J Ind Med 17(5): 537-552 - Aerospace electromechanical workers, all workers PMR = 4.2 (p<0.0001) n=583. For hourly workers with up to 20 years of work PMR = 8.7 (p=0.000003). (buerg)
28.    Park et al. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 77(6):387-394, 2004 - higher mortality rates for all cancers and leukemia in some age groups in the area near the AM radio broadcasting towers. (Lai)
29.    Paulraj R, Behari J, Rao AR (1999) Effect of amplitude modulated RF radiation on calcium ion efflux and ODC activity in chronically exposed rat brain, Indian J Biochem Biophys Oct;36(5):337-340. (Pilette)
30.    Paulraj R, Behari J (2004) Radiofrequency radiation effects on protein kinase C activity in rats brain, Mutat Res Jan.12; 545 (1-2):127-130. (Pilette)
31.    Paulraj R, Behari J (2006) Single strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells exposed to microwave radiation, Mutat Res Apr.11; 596(1-2): 76- 80. (Pilette)
32.    Pearce NE, Sheppard RA, Howard JK, Fraser J & Lilley BM 1985. Leukemia in electrical workers in New Zealand. Lancet i:811. (Anselmo)
33.    Pearce N, Reif J, Fraser J (1989) Case-control studies of cancer in New Zealand electrical workers, Int J Epidemiol 18(1): 55-59 - New Zealand, electrical workers, radio and TV repair OR = 7.86 (2.2-28.1) n=2. (buerg)
34.    Perry FS et al., “Environmental Power Frequency Magnetic Fields and Suicide”, Health Physics 1981; 41:267-277 - found a highly significant association between suicide and the exposure to magnetic fields from High Voltage Powerlines when above 0.4 mG. (Nexus 14(5))
35.    Perry FS, Pearl L, “Health effects of ELF fields and illness in multi-storey blocks”, Public Health 1988 Jan; 102(1):11-18 - found that residents of an apartment block nearer to the main electrical supply cable, and to the corresponding higher magnetic field, were more likely to be admitted to the hospital both for depressive illness and myocardial infarction than residents of the same block living at a greater distance from the supply cable. (Nexus 14(5))
36.    Perry S, Pearl L and Binns R, “Power Frequency Magnetic Field: Depressive Illness and Myocardial Infarction”, Public health 1989;103 177-180. (revolt)
37.    Persson et al. Wireless Network 3:455-461, 1997 - reported an increase in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in mice exposed to RFR at 0.0004 - 0.008 W/kg. The blood-brain barrier envelops the brain and protects it from toxic substances. (Lai)
38.    Pfluger, D.M. and Minder, C.E., 1996: "Effects of 16.7 Hz magnetic fields on urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion of Swiss railway workers". J Pineal Research 21(2): 91-100. (buerg)
39.    Phelan, A.M., Lange, D.G., Kues, H.A, and Lutty, G.A., 1992: "Modification of membrane fluidity in Melanin-containing cells by low-level microwave radiation". Bioelectromagnetics, 13: 131-146 - Microwaves were observed to enhance free radicals in cell membranes. (buerg)
40.    Phelan AM, Neubauer CF, Timm R, Neirenberg J, Lange DG, “Athermal alterations in the structure of the canalicular membrane and ATPase activity induced by thermal levels of microwave radiation”, Radiat Res 137(1):52-58, 1994
41.    Phillips et al. Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 45:103-110, 1998a - reported DNA damage in cells exposed to RFR at SAR of 0.0024 - 0.024 W/kg. (Lai)
42.    Phillips, J.L., Campbell-Beachler, M., Ivaschuk, O., Ishida-Jones, T. and Haggnen, W., 1998b: "Exposure of molt-4 lymphoblastoid cells to a 1 g sinusoidal magnetic field at 60 Hz". In: Annual Review of Research on Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields from Generation, Delivery and Use of Electricity, W/L Associated Ltd, Frederick, MD - exposed Molt-4 T-lymphoblastoid cells to a number of cell phone technologies in the exposure range SAR = 0.0024W/kg to 0.026W/kg. At both of these exposure levels they observed significantly increased DNA damage (p<0.0001) for one cell phone and decreased damage for three cell phone signals. (buerg)
43.    Pleskov VM, Suvorov NB, Vasilevskii NN (1990) [The effect of microwave irradiation on the peroxide modification of low density lipoproteins in human blood serum][Article in Russian] Radiobiologiia  Sep-Oct; 30(5): 675-678. (Pilette)
44.    Polonga-Moraru et al. (2002) Bioelectrochemistry 56(1-2):223-225 - change in membrane of cells in the retina (eye) after exposure to RFR at 15 µW/cm2. (Lai)
45.    Poole C, Kavet R, Funch DP, Donelan K, Charry JM, Dreyer NA (1993) Depressive Symptoms and Headaches in Relation to Proximity of Residence to an Alternating-Current Transmission Line Right-of–way, Am J Epidemiol 137, 318-330. (revolt)
46.    Porcelli M, Cacciapuoti G, Fusco S, Massa R, D'ambrosio G, BertoldoC, De Rosa M, Zappia V (1997) Non-thermal effects of microwaves on proteins: thermophilic enzymes as model system, FEBS Lett, Feb 3; 402(2-3):102-106. (Pilette)
47.    Prausnitz, S. and Susskind, C., 1962: "Effects of chronic microwave irradiation on mice". IRE Trans on Biomed. Elecron. 9: 104-108 - (1) Testicular degeneration (atrophy with no sperm) occurred in 29.8% (39/124) of the exposed animals and 7.1 % (4/56) of the control animals, RR = 4.2. (2) Cancer of the white cells or leukosis was seen in 26.5% (39/147) of the exposed animals compared to 13.0% (9/69) of the controls, RR= 2.04. This condition was described as monocytic or lymphatic organ tumours or myeloid leukaemia in the circulating blood. In these mice significant and severe (4.2-fold) testicular damage and a 2-fold increase in the initiation of leukaemia occurred is association with a mean exposure of 22 µW/cm². (buerg)
48.    Preece AW, Iwi G, Davies-Smith A, Wesnes K, Butler S, Lim E, Varey A (1999) Effect of a 915-MHz simulated mobile phone signal on cognitive function in man, Int J Radiat Biol Apr; 75(4): 447-456. (Pilette)
49.    Preece A et al (2005) Effect of 902 MHz mobile phone transmission on cognitive function in children, Bioelectromagnetics Suppl 7 S138-43 (pwt)
50.    Preston-Martin S, Mack W, Henderson BE (1989) Risk factors for gliomas and meningiomas in males Los Angeles County, Cancer Research 49: 6137 - Electrical workers in Los Angeles county have a 4.3-fold increased risk of certain brain tumors. (buerg)
51.    Preston-Martin, S., Lewis, S., Winkelmann R., Borman, B., Auld, J. and Pearce, N., 1993: "Descriptive epidemiology of primary cancer of the brain, cranial nerves, and cranial meninges in New Zealand, 1948-88". Cancer Causes and Control 4(6): 529-538 - New Zealand, electrical workers Electricians OR = 4.6 (1.7-12.2) Electrical engineers OR = 8.2 (2.0 - 34). (buerg)
52.    Pyrpasopoulou et al. Bioelectromagnetics 25(3):216-227, 2004 - exposure to cell phone radiation during early gestation at SAR of 0.0005 W/kg (5 µW/cm2) affected kidney development in rats. (Lai)

53.    Quan, R., Yang, C., Rubinstein, S., Lewiston, N.J., Sunshine, P., Stevenson, D.K. and Kerner, J.A., 1992: "Effects of microwave radiation on anti-infective factors in human milk". Pediatrics 89(4):667-669 - Microwave heating reduces immune system factors in human breast milk, compared to conventional heating. Microwave heating significantly reduces the IgA for E coli bacteria, producing five times more E coli for 25ºC heating and 18 times more after 3 hours for 98ºC heating. (buerg)

54.    Rao, S. and Henderson, A., 1996: "Regulation of c-fos is affected by electromagnetic fields". J Cell Biochem 63(3): 358-365. (buerg)
55.    REFLEX Report - Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards From Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods. A project funded by the European Union under the programme "Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources" (pwt)
56.    Reichmanis M, Perry FS, Marino AA, Becker RO (1979) Relation between Suicide and the Electromagnetic Field of Overhead Power Lines, Physiology Chemistry & Physics 11, 395-403. (revolt)
57.    Reif JS, Lower KS and Ogilvie GK, “Residential Exposure to Magnetic Fields and Risk of Canine Lymphoma”, Am J Epidemiol 1995; 141: 352-359 - dogs exposed to EMF's from overhead lines had an 80% greater risk of contracting cancer than the dogs that lived where the powerlines were buried.
58.    Reiter, R.J., 1994: "Melatonin suppression by static and extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields: relationship to the reported increased incidence of cancer". Reviews on Environmental Health. 10(3-4):171-86, 1994 - Induced alteration of cellular calcium ions of the pineal gland reduces the nocturnal production of melatonin (which increases the cell damage throughout the body, reduces the integrity and competence of the immune system, and hence increases the incidence of cancer and immune system related disease and degenerative diseases of the brain. (buerg)
59.    Remondini D et al, (2006) Gene expression changes in human cells after exposure to mobile phone microwaves, Proteomics 2006 Sep;6(17):4745-54 (pwt)
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61.    Repacholi MH 1998. Low-level exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: health effects and research needs. Bioelectromag 19:1-19. (Anselmo)
62.    Ribeiroa E et al, (2007) Effects of subchronic exposure to radio frquency from a conventional cellular telephone on testicular function in adult rats, J Urol 177(1): 395-399 (pwt)
63.    Robinette, C.D., Silverman, C. and Jablon, S., 1980: "Effects upon health of occupational exposure to microwave radiation (radar)". Am J Epidemiol, 112(1):39-53, 1980 - Navy, Korean War, FT/ET groups, RF/MW; For brain, eye and CNS RR = 1.66 (1.06-2.60) n=8. This paper is widely claimed to show no effects when its data does show significant adverse human health effects, including a significant dose-response relationship for respiratory cancer. (buerg)
64.    Robison JG, Pendleton AR, Monson KO, Murray BK & O'Neill KL 2002. Decreased DNA repair rates and protection from heat induced apoptosis mediated by electromagnetic field exposure. Bioelectromag 23(2):106-112. (Anselmo)
65.    Rodriguez M, Petitclerc D, Burchard JF, Nguyen DN, Block E (2004) Blood melatonin and prolactin concentrations in dairy cows exposed to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields during 8 h photoperiods, Bioelectromagnetics Oct; 25(7): 508-515. (Pilette)
66.    Rosen, L.A., Barber, I. and Lyle D.B., 1998: "A 0.5 G, 60 HZ magnetic field suppresses melatonin production in pinealocytes". Bioelectromagnetics 19: 123-127 – the authors state that seven different laboratories have reported suppression of nighttime rise in pineal melatonin production in laboratory animals. They show that a 50 µT, 60 Hz field with a 0.06 µT DC field, over 10 experiments, averages a 46% reduction in melatonin production from pinealocytes. (buerg)
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76.    Sanjose, S., Roman, E. and Beral, V., 1991: "Low birthweight and preterm delivery, Scotland, 1981-1984: effect of parent's occupation". Lancet 338(8764): 428-431- found statistically significant (p<0.05) increases in low birth weight (RR = 1.4) and preterm delivery (RR = 1.8) for mothers who work in the electrical industry. (buerg)
77.    Santana VS, Silva M, Loomis D (1999) Brain neoplasms among naval military men, Int J Occup Environ Health 5(2): 88-94 - Brazilian Naval Personnel, aged <56 yrs OR = 4.63 (2.54-8.45) n=40, unmarried men OR = 3.18 (1.69-5.99). (buerg)
78.    Santini R, Seigne M, Bonhomme-Faivre L, Bouffet S, Defrasne E, Sage M (2001a) Symptomes rapportés par des utilisateurs de téléphones mobiles cellulaires, Pathol Biol  (Paris) Apr;49(3): 222-226. (Pilette)
79.    Santini R, Santini P, Seigne M, Danze JM (2001b) Symptômes exprimés par des riverains de stations relais de téléphonie mobile, Presse Med Nov 3; 30(32): 1594. (Pilette)
80.    Santini R, Seigne M, Bonhomme-Faivre M, Bouffet S, Defrasne E, Sage M (2002a) Symptoms experienced by users of digital cellular phones: a study of a french engineering school, Electromagn Biol Med 21(1): 81-88. (Pilette)
81.    Santini et al. (2002b) Enquête sur la santé de riverains de stations relais de téléphonie mobile : I/ Incidences de la distance et du sexe [Study of the health of people living in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations: I. Influence of distance and sex] Pathol Biol (Paris) 50(6):369-373 – increase in complaint frequencies for tiredness, headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, in people who lived within 300 m of mobile phone base stations. (Lai)
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84.    Sarkar, S., Sher, A., and Behari, J., 1994: "Effect of low power microwave on the mouse genome: A direct DNA analysis". Mutation Research, 320: 141-147 - Microwaves are shown to be associated with DNA breakage in rats brains. (buerg)
85.    Sastre, A., Cook, M.R. and Graham, C., 1998: "Nocturnal exposure to intermittent 60 Hz magnetic fields alters human cardiac rhythm". Bioelectromagnetics 19: 98-106 - observed significantly reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in volunteers sleeping in 60Hz fields. (buerg)
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87.    Savitz, D.A., John, E.M. and Kleckner, R.C., 1990: "Magnetic field exposure from electric appliances and childhood cancer". Am J Epidemiol 131(5):763-773 – increase in brain cancer in children , OR = 2.5 (1.1-5.5). (buerg)
88.    Savitz, D.A., and Chen, J., 1990: "Parental occupation and childhood cancer: Review of epidemiological studies". Environ Health Perspect, 88: 325-337 Savitz and Chen (1990) show significant increased risk of childhood cancer (Neuroblastoma (OR=11.8*), Brain Tumour (OR=2.7*) and CNS tumors (OR=1.7)) associated with parents who work in electrical and electronic industries. (buerg)
89.    Savitz, .A. and Kaune, W.T., 1993: "Childhood cancer in relation to a modified residential wire code". Environ Health Perspect 101(1): 76-80 - Children, Wire Code OR = 2.5 (1.1-5.5). (buerg)
90.    Savitz DA, Boyle CA, Holmgreen P (1994) Prevalence of Depression Among Electrical Workers, Am J Ind Med 25, 165-177. (revolt)
91.    Savitz DA, Loomis DP (1995) Magnetic field exposure in relation to leukemia and brain cancer mortality among electric utility workers, Am J Epidemiol 141(2): 123-34 - Significantly increased and dose-response increases of total Mortality, All Cancer, Leukaemia and Brain Tumour were found in US Utility Workers (1950-1988) and sub-set of occupations. (buerg)
92.    Savitz, D.A., Olshan, A.F. and Gallagher, K., 1996: "Maternal occupation and pregnancy outcome". Epidemiology 7: 269-274. (buerg)
93.    Savitz DA, Checkoway H, Loomis DP (1998a) Magnetic field exposure and neurodegenerative disease mortality among electric utility workers, Epidemiology 9(4):398-404 - Mortality from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was positively associated with duration of work in exposed jobs [rate ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.7-6.0. (buerg)
94.    Savitz, D.A,, Loomis, D.P. and Tse, C.K., 1998b: "Electrical occupations and neurodegenerative disease: analysis of U.S. mortality data". Arch Environ Health 53(1): 71-74. (buerg)
95.    Savitz, D.A., Liao, D., Sastre, A., Klecjner, R.C., and Kavet, R., 1999: "Magnetic field exposure and cardiovascular disease mortality among electric utility workers". Am. J. Epidemiology, 149(2): 135-142 - found a highly significant dose response relationship for mortality from Arrhythmia related heart disease and heart attack (Acute Myocardial Infarction) for exposed electrical occupations and for individual occupations of electrician, lineman and power plant operator. (buerg)
96.    Scaiano JC, Cozens FL, McLean J & Thansandote A 1994. Application of the radical pair mechanism to free radicals in organized systems: can the effects of 60 Hz magnetic fields be predicted from studies under static fields? Bioelectromag 15:549-554. (Anselmo)
97.    Schirmacher A, Winter S, Fisher S, Goeke J, Galla HJ, Kullnich U, Ringelstein EB, Stogbauer F (2000) Electromagnetic fields (1.8 Ghz) increase the permeability to sucrose of the blood-brain barrier in vitro, Bioelectromagnetics Jul;21(5): 338-345. (Pilette)
98.    Schlehofer, B., Kunze, S., W., Blettner, M., Niehoff, D. and Wahrendorf, J., 1990: "Occupational risk factors for brain tumors: results from a population-bsed case-control study in Germany". Cancer Causes and Control 1(3):209-215 - Germany, electrical workers; Women RR = 5.2 (1.4-20.1). (buerg)
99.    Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Ahlbom A, Auvinen A, Blaasaas KG, Cardis E, Christensen HC, Feychting M, Hepworth SJ, Johansen C, Klaeboe L, Lonn S, Mckinney PA, Muir K, Raitanen J, Salminen T, Thomsen J, Tynes T (2005) Mobile phone use and risk of acoustic neuroma : results of the Interphone case-control study in five North European countries, Br J Cancer  Oct 3; 93(7): 842-848. (Pilette)
100.    Schüz J, Böhler E, Berg G, Schlehofer B, Hettinger I, Schlaefer K, Wahrendorf  J, Kunna-Grass K and Blettner M, “Cellular Phones, Cordless Phones, and the Risks of Glioma and Meningioma (Interphone Study Group, Germany)”, Am J Epidemiol (online January 27, 2006) - Among persons who had used cellular phones for 10 or more years, increased risk was found for glioma.
101.    Schuez J et al, (2006) Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted from base stations of DECT cordless phones and the risk of glioma and meningioma (Interphone Study Group, Germany), Radiat Res 2006 Jul; 166(1 Pt 1):116-9 (pwt)
102.    Schwartz,, J.L., House, D.E., and Mealing, A.R., 1990: "Exposure of frog hearts to CW or amplitude modulated VHF fields: selective efflux of calcium ions at 16 Hz." Bioelectromagnetics, 11: 349-358 – calcium movement in the heart affected by RFR at SAR of 0.00015 W/kg. Calcium is important in muscle contraction. Changes in calcium can affect heart functions. The lowest published RF intensity that has been documented to produce significant Ca2+ efflux: 0.00015 W/kg. (Lai; buerg)
103.    Seaton A, Macnee W, Donaldson K and Godden D, “Particulate air pollution and acute health effects”, The Lancet 1995; 345,176-78 - risk assessment based on increased exposure to air pollution via corona ion effects. (revolt)
104.    Selmaoui B & Touitou Y 1995. Sinusoidal 50 Hz magnetic fields depress rat pineal NAT activity and serum melatonin. Role of duration and intensity of exposure. Life Science 57:1351-1358. (Anselmo)
105.    Selvin, S., Schulman, J. and Merrill, D.W., 1992: "Distance and risk measures for the analysis of spatial data: a study of childhood cancers". Soc. Sci. Med., 34(7):769-777 - San Francisco, Sutra Tower (FM/TV), children < 21 yrs RR = 2.87, (1.30-6.32), p<0.01 n=35. Comparing <4.5km and >4.5 km Trend p <0.0001. Contrary to the conclusion of Selvin et al. and ICNIRP (1998), who claim that this study shows no evidence of adverse effects, the spatial data when related to actual radial radiation exposure patterns forms significant linear dose-response relationships, with All Cancer and Brain Tumour having extremely significant dose-response relationships. (buerg)
106.    Semin IuA, Shvartsburg LK, Zhavoronkov LP (2002) [“Dependence of microwave effect on the secondary structure of DNA on molecular weight of polynucleotide”] [Article in Russian] Radiats Biol Radioecol Mar-Apr; 42(2): 186-190. (Pilette)
107.    Shallom JM, Di Carlo AL, Ko D, Penafiel LM, Nakai A, Litovitz TA (2002) Microwave exposure induces Hsp70 and confers protection against hypoxia in chick embryos, J Cell Biochem; 86(3):490-496 – alteration of cell defence mechanism. (Pilette)
108.    Shaw GW & Croen LA 1993. Human adverse reproductive outcomes and electromagnetic fields exposures: review of epidemiologic studies. Env Health Persp 101:107-119. (Anselmo)
109.    Sigler, A.T., Lilienfeld, A.M., Cohen, B.H. and Westlake, J.E., 1965: "Radiation exposure in parents of children with mongolism (Down's Syndrome)". Bulletin Johns Hopkins Hospital. 117: 374-399 – found a significant risk from parental radar exposure. (buerg)
110.    Simonenko,V.B, Chernetsov AA & Lyutov VV (1998) Influence of electromagnetic radiation in the radio-frequency range on the health condition of an organized collective, Voenno-med-itsinskiy zhurnal CCCXIX(5):64-68 -  presented data from an investigation over a span of four years of groups of workers having contact in the course of their work with low-power EHF EMR. The first group received irradiation at a level of 30-40 μW/cm2 for up to six hours a day. The second group received irradiation at a level of 10-30 μW/cm2for from two minutes to 2-4 hours a day. The third group received irradiation at a level of 1 μW/cm2.All other conditions among the groups were identical. In the first group, the most frequent illnesses proved to be neurotic syndrome with vegetative dysfunction and astheno-vegetative syndrome. There was a high frequency of hypertension, early development of ischemic heart disease, and bronchospasms. Nearly all the persons studied complained of: headache and dizziness; irritability; fatigability; general weakness; sleep disturbance; daytime sleepiness; pain in the region of the heart; difficulty breathing; and stomach pains and indigestion. The frequency and nature of the complaints were identical for men and women, and the nature of the complaints were identical for all groups, but quantitatively they increased depending on age and number of years on the job. (ussr)
111.    Simkó M & Mattssom M-O 2004. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields as effectors of cellular responses in vitro: possible immune cell activation. J Cell Biochem 93:83-92. (Anselmo)
112.    Sinczuk-Walczak H, Bortkiewicz A, Zmyslony M (2004) [Effects of electromagnetic fields generated by mobile phones on the nervous system] [Article in Polish] Med Pr 55(5): 435-438. (Pilette)
113.    Skyberg, K., Hansteen, I.L., and Vistnes, A.I., 1993: "Chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of high-voltage laboratory cable splicers exposed to electromagnetic fields". Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 19(1):29-34. (buerg)
114.    Sobel E., Dunn, M., Davanipour DVM, Qian MS, Chui MD (1996a) Elevated risk of Alzheimer's disease among workers with likely electromagnetic field exposure, Neurology 47(12): 1477-1481 - found that workers in industries with likely electromagnetic field exposure have a very significant (p=0.006) increase in incidence of Alzheimer's disease, OR = 3.93, 95% CI: 1.5-10.6. For males the adjusted odds ratio was 4.9, 95% CI: 1.3-7.9, p=0.01, and for females, OR = 3.40, 95% CI: 0.8-16.0, p = 0.01. (buerg)
115.    Sobel E, Davanipour DVM (1996b) Electromagnetic field exposure may cause increased production of amyloid beta and eventually lead to Alzheimer's disease, Neurology 47(12):1594-1600. (buerg)
116.    Somosy et al. Scanning Microsc 5(4):1145-1155, 1991 - RFR at 0.024 W/kg caused molecular and structural changes in cells of mouse embryos. (Lai)
117.    Speers, M.A., Dobbins, J.G., and Miller, V.S., 1988: "Occupational exposures and brain cancer mortality: a preliminary study of East Texas Residents". American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 13:629-638 - East Texas, Males Glioma, n=202, transportation, communication and utilities industries OR = 2.26 (1.18-4.32), electricity or electromagnetic fields OR = 3.94 (1.52-10.20) Trend: p<0.01. (buerg)
118.    Stagg et al. Bioelectromagnetics 18(3):230-236, 1997- glioma cells exposed to cellular phone RFR at 0.0059 W/kg showed significant increases in thymidine incorporation, which may be an indication of an increase in cell division. (Lai)
119.    Stang A, Anastassiou G, Ahrens W, Bromen K, Bornfeld N, Jockel KH (2001) The possible role of radiofrequency radiation in the development of uveal melanoma, Epidemiology Jan;12 (1): 7-12. (Pilette)
120.    Stankiewicz W, Dabrowski MP, Kubacki R, Sobiczewska E, Szmigielski S (2006) Immunotropic influence of 900 MHz microwave GSM signal on human blood immune cells activated in vitro, Electromagn Biol Med 25(1):45-51. (Pilette)
121.    Stark, K.D.C., Krebs, T., Altpeter, E., Manz, B., Griol, C. and Abelin, T., 1997: "Absence of chronic effect of exposure to short-wave radio broadcast signal on salivary melatonin concentrations in dairy cattle". J Pineal Res 22: 171-176 - observed a significant increase in salival melatonin in a group of 5 cows when the short-wave radio transmitter at Schwarzenberg, Switzerland, was turned off for three days, compared to 5 cows that had much lower RF exposure. (buerg)
122.    Stevens RG 1987. Electric power use and breast cancer, a hypothesis. Am J Epidemiol 125: 556-561. (Anselmo)
123.    Stevens RG, Davis S, Thomas DB, Anderson LE, Wilson BW (1992) Electric Power, Pineal Function and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Hypothesis. FASEB J. 6: p. 853-860. (revolt)
124.    Stevens RG 1995. Risk of postmenopausal breast cancer and use of electric blankets. Am J Epidemiol 142:446. (Anselmo)
125.    Stopczyk D, Gnitecki W, Buczynski A, Markuszewski L, Buczynski J (2002) [Effect of electromagnetic field produced by mobile phones on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) and the level of malonyldialdehyde (MDA) – in vitro study][Article in Polish] Med Pr 53(4):311-314. (Pilette)
126.    Stopczyk D, Gnitecki W, Buczynski A, Kowalski W, Buczynska M,  Kroc A (2005) [Effect of electromagnetic field produced by mobile phones on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) - in vitro researches][Article in Polish] Ann Acad Med Stetin 51(Suppl. 1):125-128. (Pilette)
127.    Strayer D et al, (2003) Cell phone-induced failures of visual attention during simulated driving, J Exp Psychol Appl Mar;9(1):23-32 (pwt)
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129.    Suvorov NB, Medvedeva MV, Vasilevskii NN (1987) [Neuroeffects of prolonged exposure to microwaves : systemic, neuronal and electron microscope study] [Article in Russian] Radiobiologiia  Sep-Oct; 27(5): 674-679. (Pilette)
130.    Suvorov NB, Medvedeva MV, Vasilevskii NN, Ur'iash VV, Aleksandrova ZhG (1989) [Cumulated biological effects of microwaves and their reflection in behavior, work capacity, growth of body mass and state of brain neurons] [Article in Russian] Radiobiologiia Sep-Oct;29(5):660-666. (Pilette)
131.    Suvorov, N.B., Boitsova, V.V., Medvedeva, M.V., Bogdanov, O.V., and Vasilevskii, N.N., 1994: "The biological action of physical factors in the critical periods of embryogenesis". Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoi Biokhimii i Fiziologii, 30(6):762-768 - Electromagnetic exposure (4 hours a day) in the 10-13 days of incubation period evokes a delay in embryo adaptive motor behavior (biofeedback learning). Morphological investigation shows significant pathological changes, specifically, destruction of share brain synapses. The delay in embryo hatching for a day is also detected. (buerg)
132.    Svedenstgal, B-M., Johanson, K-L., Mattsson, M-O. and Paulson, L-E., 1998: "DNA damage, ODC activities and cell kinetics in CBA mice exposed to magnetic fields generated by transmission lines". In: Annual Review of Research on Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields from Generation, Delivery and Use of Electricity, W/L Associated Ltd, Frederick, MD. (buerg)
133.    Swerdlow AJ 1983. Epidemiology of eye cancer in adults in England and Wales 1962-1977. Am J Epidemiol 18:294-300. (Anselmo)
134.    Szmigielski, S., Bielec, M., Lipski, S., and Sokolska, G., 1988: "Immunological and cancer-related aspects of exposure to low level microwave and radiofrequency fields". In Marino (Ed), 'Modern Bioelectricity', Marcel Bekker, N.Y., pp 861-925 - finds significant increases in cancer across the body, especially leukaemia incidence and mortality among Polish Military personnel exposed to radio and radar. (buerg)
135.    Szmigielski, S., 1996: "Cancer morbidity in subjects occupationally exposed to high frequency (radiofrequency and microwave) electromagnetic radiation". Science of the Total Environment, Vol 180, 1996, pp 9-17 - found increased rates of leukemia and lymphoma among military personnel exposed to EMF fields. (buerg)
136.    Szmigielski, S., Bortkiewicz, A., Gadzicka, E., Zmyslony, M. and Kubacki, R., 1998: "Alteration of diurnal rhythms of blood pressure and heart rate to workers exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields". Blood Press. Monit, 3(6): 323-330 - found that RF exposure altered heart rate variability and blood pressure. (buerg)
137.    Szyjkowska A, Bortkiewicz A, Szymczak W, Makowiec-Dabrowska T (2005) [Subjective symptoms related to mobile phone use- a pilot study] [Article in Polish] Pol Merkuriusz Lekarski Oct 19(112): 529-532. (Pilette)

138.    Taskinen, H., Kyyronen, P., and Hemminki, K., 1990: "Effects of ultrasound, shortwaves and physical exertion on pregnancy outcome in physiotherapists". J. of Epidemiology and Community Health, 44:196-210 - found statistically significant increases in congenital malformations in the children of mothers using shortwave therapy. (buerg)
139.    Tattersall et al. Brain Res 904(1):43-53, 2001 - low-intensity RFR (0.0016 - 0.0044 W/kg) can modulate the function of a part of the brain called the hippocampus, in the absence of gross thermal effects. The changes in excitability may be consistent with reported behavioral effects of RFR, since the hippocampus is involved in learning and memory. (Lai)
140.    Terol FF, Panchon A (1995) Exposure of domestic quail embryos to extremely low frequency magnetic fields, Int J Radiat Biol Sep 68(3): 321-330. (Pilette)
141.    Theriault, G., Goldberg, M., Miller, A.B., Armstrong, B., Guenel, P., Deadman, J., Imbemon, E., TO, T., Chevalier, A., Cyr, D. and Wall, C., 1994: "Cancer risks associated with occupational exposures to magnetic fields among utility workers in Ontario, and Quebec, Canada, and France: 1970-1989". Am. J. of Epidemiology, 139(6): 550-572 - Quebec, Ontario and French Utility workers, >=90th percentile, years of exposure ( 5 years OR = 0.81 (0.3-2.21); (20 years OR = 1.78 (0.69-4.62); >=20 (20 years OR = 5.90 (0.37-94.4). (buerg)
142.    Thomas, T.L., Stolley, P.D., Stemhagen, A., Fontham, E.T.H., Bleecker, M.L., Stewart, P.A., and Hoover, R.N., 1987: "Brain tumor mortality risk among men with electrical and electronic jobs: A case-control study". J. Nat. Canc. Inst., Vol 79, No.2, pp 233­-238., August 1987 - report a 10-fold increase in astrocytic brain tumor among electronics and repair workers employed for 20 years or more. Some risk was due to solvents, put at a factor of 2, placing RF/MW contribution at a factor of 5. (buerg)
143.    Tice, R.R. et al, Genotoxicity of  radiofrequency signals. I. Investigation of DNA damage and micronuclei induction in cultured human blod cells. Bioelectromagnetics 23:113-126, 2002 – found serious changes in human blood cells following exposure to four different types of cellphone signals. (PH 261)  
144.    Timchenko, O.I., and Ianchevskaia, N.V., 1995: "The cytogenetic action of electromagnetic fields in the short-wave range". Psychopharmacology Series, Jul-Aug;(7-8):37-9. (buerg)
145.    Tkalec M, Malaric K, Pevalek-Kozlina B (2005) Influence of 400, 900 and 1900 MHz electromagnetic fields on Lemna minor growth and peroxidase activity, Bioelectromagnetics Apr; 26(3): 185-193. (Pilette)
146.    Tomenius, L.; 50-Hz Electromagnetic Environment and the Incidence of Childhood Tumors in StockHolm County. Bioelectromagnetics Vol 7, pp. 191-207, 1986 - Children with cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, lived in dwellings with EMFs greater than 3 mG more often than controls. Females were 2.3 times and males 1.4 times more likely to live in such dwellings. Increases of 120% for leukemia, 120% for lymphoma and 420% for tumors of the nervous system were found. (Guru)
147.    Törnqvist, S., Knave, B., Ahlbom, A. & Persson, T.; Incidence of leukaemia and brain tumours in some "electrical occupations." Brit. J. of Industrial Med. Vol 48, pp. 597-603, 1991 - Swedish rail workers exposed to 16.66 Hz fields over 25 mG had no increase in cancer while telephone and telegraph repairmen had a 110% increase in leukemia with 50 Hz mean exposures of only 0.5 to 0.8 mG. (Guru)
148.    Trosko JE 2000. Human health consequences of enviromentally-modulated gene expression: potential roles of ELF-EMF induced epigenetic versus mutagenic mechanisms of disease. Bioeletromag 21:402-406. (Anselmo)
149.    Tynes T, Anderson A, Langmark F (1992) Incidence of cancer in Norwegian workers potentially exposed to electromagnetic fields, Am J Epidemiol 136(1):81-88 - electric exposure SIR = 2.20 (1.01-4.18) Tram drivers SIR = 2.04 (0.42-5.98). (buerg)
150.    Tynes T, Hannevik M, Anderson A, Vistnes AI, Haldorsen T (1996) Incidence of breast cancer in Norewegian female radio and telegraph operators, Cancer causes Control 7(2): 197-204 - observed an excess risk of Female Breast Cancer for female radio and telegraph operators exposed to RF (405 kHz-25 MHz), SIR = 1.5 for > 50 yr of age. (buerg)
151.    Tynes T, Haldorsen T (1997) Electromagnetic fields and cancer in children residing near Norwegian high-voltage power lines, Am J Epidemiol 145(3): 219-226 – Norway, Children <0.05 µT 0.05-<0.14 µT >0.14 µT n=10; RR = 1.0 2.6 (0.5-12.0) 2.3 (0.8-6.6) p=0.07. (buerg)
152.    Tynes T, Klæboe L & Haldorsen T 2003. Residential and occupational exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields and malignant melanoma: a population based study. Occup Env Med 60:343-347. (Anselmo)

153.    Ubeda A, Leal J, Trillo MA, Jimenez MA, Delgado JM (1983) Pulse shape of magnetic fields influences chick embryogenesis, J Anat Oct 137(Pt3): 513-536. (Pilette)
154.    Ubeda A, Trillo MA, Chacon L, Blanco MJ, Leal J (1994) Chick embryo development can be irreversibly altered by early exposure to weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics 15(5): 385-398. (Pilette)

155.    Vagero D & Olin R 1983. Incidence of cancer in the electronics industry: using the New Swedish cancer environment registry as a screening instrument. Br J Ind Med 40:188-192. (Anselmo)
156.    Valjus J, Norppa H, Jarventaus H, Sorsa M, Nykyri E, Salomaa S, Jarvinen P, Kajander J (1993) Analysis of chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei among power linesmen with long-term exposure to 50-Hz electromagnetic fields, Radiat Environ Biophys 32(4): 325-36. (buerg)
157.    Van Wijngaarden EV, Savitz DA, Kleckner RC, Cai J and Loomis D, “Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields and Suicide Among Electric Utility Workers: A Nested Case-Control study”, WJM 2000;173, 94-100 - For recent exposure and 1 to 5 years of recent exposure there were significant dose-response relationships with cumulative exposure to electromagnetic fields. (revolt; buerg)
158.    Vangelova et al.  Cent Eur J Public Health 10(1-2):24-28, 2002 - operators of satellite station exposed to low dose (0.1127 J/kg) of RFR over a 24-hr shift showed an increased excretion of stress hormones. (Lai)
159.    Vasilevskii NN, Gondareva LN, Koisin BA (1984) [Effect of microwaves on work capacity and impedance of the brain structure of rats] [Article in Russian] Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova  Apr; 70(4): 419-424. (Pilette)
160.    Vasilevskii NN, Suvorov NB, Medvedeva MV (1989) [Experimental analysis of biological effects of microwaves : their systemic, ultrastructural and neuronal mechanisms] [Article in Russian] Gig Sanit Oct;(10):41-45. (Pilette)
161.    Vaughan, T.L., Daling, J.R. and Starzyk, P.M., 1984: "Fetal death and maternal occupation". J Occup Med 676-678 - found significantly increased risk of fetal death for last pregnancy for therapists, RR=2.0, CI: 1.5-2.5, n=169, and for electronic technicians, RR= 1.5, CI:1.2-2.0, n=202. (buerg)
162.    Velizarov et al. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 48(1):177-180, 1999 – showed a decrease in cell proliferation (division) after exposure to RFR of 0.000021 - 0.0021 W/kg. (Lai)
163.    Verkasalo, P.K., Pukkala, E., Hongistro, M.Y., Valjus, J.E., Jarvinen, P.J., Heikkila, K.V. and Koskenvuo, M., 1993: "Risk of cancer in Finnish children living close to power lines". BMJ 307(6909): 895-899 – increased CNS tumours in boys SIR = 4.2, (1.4-9.9) >0.2 µT or > 0.4 µT-years. (buerg)
164.    Verkasalo PK, Kaprio J, Varjonen J. Romanov K, Heikkila K and Koskenvuo M., “Magnetic Fields of Transmission Lines and Depression”, Am J Epidemiol 1997;146 1037-1045. (revolt; buerg)
165.    Verschaeve, L., Slaets, D., Van Gorp, U., Maes, A. and Vanderkom, J., 1994: "In vitro and in vivo genetic effects of microwaves from mobile phone frequencies in human and rat peripheral blood lymphocytes". Proceedings of Cost 244 Meetings on Mobile Communication and Extremely Low Frequency field: Instrumentation and measurements in Bioelectromagnetics Research. Ed. D, Simunic, pp 74-83 - found significantly increased strand breaks at high, but non-thermal exposure levels. (buerg)
166.    Veyret et al. Bioelectromagnetics 12(1):47-56, 1991 - low intensity RFR at SAR of 0.015 W/kg affects functions of the immune system. (Lai)
167.    Vijayalaxmi BZ, Frei MR, Dusch SJ, Guel V, Meltz ML, JR (1998a) Frequency of micronuclei in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of cancer-prone mice chronically exposed to 2450 MHz radiofrequency radiation, Radiation Research, 147: 495-500 - observed a 41 % increase in tumors and highly significant (p<0.01) 12.5% increase in chromosome damage in bone marrow and blood. (buerg)
168.    Vijayalaxmi BZ, Frei MR, Dusch SJ, Guel V, Meltz ML, Jauchem JR (1998b) Frequency of micronuclei in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of cancer-prone mice chronically exposed to 2450 MHz radiofrequency radiation - a correction, Radiation Res 148. (buerg)
169.    Villeneuve PJ, Agnew DA, Miller AB, Corey PN & Purdham JT 2000a. Leukemia in electric utility workers: the evaluation of alternative indices of exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields. Am J Ind Med 37(6): 607-617. (Anselmo)
170.    Villeneuve PJ, Agnew DA, Miller AB & Corey PN 2000b. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among electric utility workers in Ontario: the evaluation of alternate indices of exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields. Occup Environ Med 57: 249-257. (Anselmo)
171.    Von Klitzing, L., 1995: "Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields influence EEG of man". Physica Medica XI (2) April-June 1995, pp77-80 - showed the cell phones alter the human EEG and interfere with REM sleep. Impairment of REM sleep is associated with memory and learning difficulties. (buerg)
172.    Vorobyov VV, Galchenko AA, Kukushkin NI, Akoev IG (1997) Effects of weak microwave fields amplitude modulated at ELF on EEG of symmetric brain areas in rats, Bioelectromag 18 (4):293-298. (Pilette)
173.    Vorobyov VV, Khramov RN (2002) Hypothalamic effects of millimeter wave irradiation depend on location of exposed acupuncture zones in unanesthetized rabbits, Am J Chin Med 30(1):29-35. (Pilette)

174.    Walleczek, J. and Budinger, T.F., 1992: "Pulsed magnetic field effects on calcium signaling in lymphocytes: dependence on cell status and field intensity". FEBS 11896, 314 (3): 351-355. (buerg)
175.    Wang, S.G. 1989: "5-HT contents change in peripheral blood of workers exposed to microwave and high frequency radiation". Chung Hua Yu Fang I Hsueh Tsa Chih 23(4): 207-210 - found that workers who were more highly exposed to RF/MW had a dose-response increase in serotonin, and hence indicates a reduction in melatonin. (buerg)
176.    Washburn EP, Orza MJ, Berlin JA, Nicholson WJ, Todd AC, Frumkin H, Chalmers TC (1994) Residential proximity to electric transmission and distribution equipment and risk of childhood leukaemia, childhood lymphoma and childhood nervous system tumors: systematic review, evaluation and meta-analysis, Cancer Causes and Control 5(4): 299-309 - Residential Children, CNS RR = 1.89 (1.34-2.67). (buerg)
177.    Welker HA et al. 1983. Effects of an artificial magnetic field on serotonin N-acetyl transferase activity and melatonin content of the rat pineal gland. Exp Brain Res 50:426-432. (Anselmo)
178.    Wenzel C, Wohr Anna-Caroline, Unshelm J (2002) Das Verhalten von Milchrinden unter dem Einfluss elektromagnetischer Felder, Praktischer Tierarzt 83, Heft 3: 260-267 – study on cows. (Pilette)
179.    Wertheimer, N. & Leeper, E.; Electrical Wiring Configurations and Childhood Cancer. Am. J. of Epidemiology Vol 109, No. 3, pp. 273-284, 1979 - The paper's import stems from its being the first epidemiological work to significantly link electromagnetic fields (EMFs) to human cancer. This seminal publication has spawned numerous confirmatory studies. Denver children with cancer lived or were born in dwellings with mean EMFs of 1.7 mG twice as often as controls. (Guru)
180.    Wertheimer, N. & Leeper, E.; Adult Cancer Related to Electrical Wires Near the Home. Int. J. Epidemiology, Vol 11, No. 4, pp. 345-355, 1982 - The male breast cancer finding has significant implications for females. Lymphoma and cancer of the breast, uterus, and brain were 64% more frequent in residents with a mean EMF of 2.5 mG than among controls. (Guru)
181.    Wertheimer, N, and Leeper, E., 1986: "Possible effects of electric blankets and heated waterbeds on fetal development". Bioelectromagnetics 7:13-22 - found a seasonal pattern of developmental delay and spontaneous abortion which significantly correlated with the use of times when electrically heated beds were used. They were not able to correlate the reproductive outcomes directly with electric field exposure. Subsequent studies have found this, confirming this result could well be EMR related. (buerg)
182.    Westerman R, Hocking B (2004) Diseases of modern living: neurological changes associated with mobile phones and radiofrequency radiation in humans, Neurosci Lett May 6; 361(1-3):13-16. (Pilette)
183.    Weyandt, T.B., Schrader, S.M., Turner, T.W. and Simon, S.D., 1996: "Semen analysis of military personnel associated with military duty assignments". Reprod Toxicol 10(6):521-528 - A small group (n=30) of U.S. Military personnel exposed to radar had significantly lower (p=0.009) lower sperm counts. (buerg)
184.    Wilen J et al, (2006) Psychophysiological tests and provocation of subjects with mobile phone related symptoms, Bioelectromagnetics 2006 Apr; 27(3):204-14 (pwt)
185.    Williams WM, Platner J, Michaelson SM (1984) Effect of 2.450 Mhz microwave energy on the blood-brain barrier to hydrophilic molecules. C. Effect on the permeability to (14C) sucrose, Brain Res May; 319(2): 183-190. (Pilette)
186.    Wilson BW, Anderson LE, Hilton DI & Phillips RD 1981. Chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields: effects on pineal function in the rat. Bioeletromag 2:371-380. (Anselmo)    
187.    Wilson BW 1988. Chronic exposure to ELF fields may induce depression. Bioelectromag 9:195-205. (Anselmo) 
188.    Wilson BW, Stevens, RG & Anderson LE 1989. Neuroendocrine mediated effects of electromagnetic-field exposure: possible role of the pineal gland life. Life Science 45:1319-1332. (Anselmo)
189.    Wilson BW, Wright CW, Morris JE, Buschbom RL, Brown DP, Miller DL, Sommers-Flannigan R, Anderson LE (1990) Evidence of an effect of ELF electromagnetic fields on human pineal gland function, J Pineal Research 9(4): 259-269.
190.    Wilson BW et al. 1999. Effects of 60 Hz magnetic field exposure on the pineal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus Sungorus). Bioeletromag 20:224-232. (Anselmo)
191.    Wolf, Ronni and Wolf, Danny, “Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station: Netanya”, Israel International Journal of Cancer Prevention, April 2004 - study indicates an association between an increased incidence of cancer and living in proximity to a cell-phone transmitter station.
192.    Wolke et al. Bioelectromagnetics 17(2):144-153, 1996 - RFR at 0.001W/kg affects calcium concentration in heart muscle cells of guinea pigs. (Lai)
193.    Wood, A.W., Armstrong, S.M., Sait, M.L., Devine, L. and Martin, M.J., 1998: "Changes in human plasma melatonin profiles in response to 50 Hz magnetic field exposure". J Pineal Research 25(2): 116-127. (buerg)
194.    Wright WE, Peters J & Mack T 1985. Leukemia in workers exposed to eletrical and magnetic fields. Lancet i:811. (Anselmo)

195.    Xu S, Ning W, Xu Z, Zhou S, Chiang H, Luo J (2006) Chronic exposure to GSM 1800-MHz microwaves reduces excitatory synaptic activity in cultured hippocampal neurons, Neurosci Lett May 8; 398(3): 253-257. (Pilette)

196.    Yellon SM 1994. Acute 60 Hz magnetic field exposure effects on the melatonin rhythm in the pineal gland and circulation of the adult Djungarian hamster. J Pineal Res 16:136-144. (Anselmo)
197.    Youbicier-Simo BJ, Boudard F, Cabaner C, Bastide M (1997)  Biological effects of continuous exposure of embryos and young chickens to electromagnetic fields emitted by video display units, Bioelectromagnetics 18(7): 514-523. (Pilette)
198.    Youbicier-Simo BJ, Lebecq JC, Bastide M (1998) Mortality of Chicken Embryos Exposed to EMFs from Mobile Phones, Presented at the 20th Annual Meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, St. Pete Beach, FL, June  - Increased mortality of chicken embryos exposed to cell phone radiation.
199.    Yurekli A et al, (2006) GSM base station electromagnetic radiation and oxidative stress in rats, Electromagn Biol Med 25(3):177-88 (pwt)

200.    Zare S, Hayatgeibi H, Alivandi S, Ebadi AG (2006)  Effects Of 50 Hz Magnetic Field On Some Factors Of The Immune System In Male Guinea Pigs, The Internet Journal of Medical Technology Vol 3 Nr 1 - The data suggests that EMF is able to change the serum levels of ACTH, cortisol and glucose, thus it is possible that it changes the endocrinological regulations.
201.    Zaret, M.M., 1977: "Potential hazards of hertzian radiation and tumors. NY State J Med,146-147. (buerg)
202.    Zecca L, Mantegazza C, Margonato V, Cerretelli P, Caniatti M, Piva F, Dondi D, Hagino N (1998) Biological effects of prolonged exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields in rats: III. 50 Hz electromagnetic fields, Bioelectromagnetics 19(1): 57-66. (Pilette)
203.    Zeng QL, Weng Y, Chen GD, Lu DQ, Chiang  H, Xu  ZP (2006) [Effects of GSM 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on protein expression profile of human breast cancer cell MCF-7][Article in Chinese] Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. May; 40(3):153-158. (Pilette)
204.    Zhang DY, Xu ZP, Chiang H, Lu DQ, Zeng QL (2006) [Effects of GSM 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on DNA damage in Chinese hamster lung cells]   [Article in Chinese] Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi May; 40(3):149-152. (Pilette)
205.    Zhao Z, Wu F (1998) [Effects of millimeter wave irradiation with different frequency and power density on their offsprings in mice] [Article in Chinese] Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi Sep; 32(5): 289-291. (Pilette)
206.    Zhavoronkov LP, Kolganova OI, Dubovik BV, Matrenina VL, Posadskaia VM (2003) [Effects of microwave radiation on conditioned behavior of rats][Article in Russian] Radiats Biol Radioecol Jan-Feb;43(1):75-81. (Pilette)
207.    Zwamborn APM, Vossen SAJA, Van Leersum BJAM, Ouwens MA, Makel WN (2003) Effects of Global Communication system radio-frequency fields on Well Being and Cognitive Functions of human subjects with and without subjective complaints, FEL-03-C148. The Hague, the Netherlands: TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory. (Pilette)

Publications of Gilles Thériault md, DrPH on exposure to electromagnectic fields (EMF) and human cancer
1.    Thériault G. Electromagnetic fields and leukemia in man: epidemiological evidence. Abstract. La med del lav 1986;77(1): 102.
2.    Deadman JE, Camus M, Armstrong B, Héroux P, Cyr D, Plante M, Thériault G. Assessment of occupational and residential exposures to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields and high frequency electric transients, using a new dosimeter. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1988;49(8): 409-419.
3.    Thériault G. Health effects of electric and magnetic fields: occupational studies. Extended Abstract in Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields: Statistical Support for Research Strategies.(1990) SAS Conference on Radiation and Health VIII, American Statistical Association, 1429 Duke St., Alexandria, Virginia.
4.    Armstrong BG, Deadman JE, Thériault G. A comparison of indices of ambient exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 1990;11: 337-347.
5.    Thériault G. Cancer risks due to exposure to electromagnetic fields. In Recent Results in Cancer Research, 1990;120: 166-180.
6.    Ad Hoc IARC working group (G. Thériault listed). Extremely Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic fields and risk of human cancer. Bioelectromagnetics 1990;11: 91-99.
7.    Thériault GP. Health effects of electromagnetic radiation on workers: epidemiologic studies. (1991) In Proceedings of the Scientific Workshop on the Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields on Workers. Edited by Philip E. Bierbaum and John M. Peters. January 30-31, 1991, Cincinnati, Ohio, US Department of Health and Human Sciences, CDC, NIOSH. 91-124.
8.    Thériault G. Champs électromagnétiques et risques de cancer. Arch Mal Prof 1992; 53:535-40.
9.    Thériault G. Electromagnetic fields and cancer risks. Rev Épidem et Santé Publ 1992; 40: S55-S62.
10.    Thériault G. Electromagnetic fields and cancer risks. Selected as an outstanding article by Clinical Digest Series. reproduced as an abstract in Breast Cancer Digest, Fall 1992.
11.    Thériault G, Goldberg M, Miller AB, Armstrong B, Guénel P, Deadman J, Imbernon E, To T, Chevalier A, Cyr D, Wall C. Cancer risks associated with occupational exposure to magnetic fields among electric utility workers in Ontario and Québec, Canada and France: 1970-1989. Am J Epidemiol 1994; 139:550-72.
12.    Armstrong B, Thériault G, Guénel P, Deadman J, Goldberg M, Héroux P. Association between Exposure to Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer in Electric Utility Workers in Québec, Canada, and France. Am J Epidemiol 1994;140:805-20.
13.    Koifman S, Thériault G. Electric and magnetic fields and cancer: the use of field exposure measurements in epidemiological studies. In Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields, Vol 2, Beneficial and Harmful Effects, edited by David O. Carpenter and Sinerik Ayrapetyan, Academic Press Inc, San Diego, California, 1995, pp 201-231.
14.    Theriault G. Electromagnetic fields. In Epidemiology of Work Related Diseases. Edited by Corbett McDonald. British Medical Journal PublishingGroup. BMA House, Tavistock Square, London WC1H9JR. 1995; pp 498. ISBN 0-7279-0856-1
15.    Deadman JE, Church G, Bradley C, Armstrong B, Thériault G. Retrospective Estimation of Exposures to Confirmed or Suspected Carcinogens in an Electrical Utility. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 1995;10:856-871.
16.    Thériault G. Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer Risks. In Introduction to Environmental Epidemiology. Edited by Evelyn O Talbot and Gunther F Craun. CRC Lewis Publishers. New York. 1995. ISBN 0-87371-573-X.
17.    Baris D, Armstrong BG, Deadman J, Thériault G. A Case Cohort Study of Suicide in Relation to Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields among Electrical Utility Workers. Occup Environ Med 1996;53:17-24.
18.    Baris D, Armstrong BG, Deadman J, Thériault G. A Mortality of Electrical Utility Workers in Québec. Occup Environ Med 1996;53:25-31.
19.    Deadman JE, Armstrong BG, Thériault G. Exposure to 60Hz magnetic and electric fields at a Canadian electric utility. Scand J Work Environ Health 1996;22:415-424.
20.    Li CY, Thériault G, Lin RS. Epidemiological appraisal of studies of residential exposure to power frequency magnetic fields and adult cancers. Occup Environ Med 1996;53:505-510.
21.    Li CY, Thériault G, Lin RS. Residential Exposure to 60-Hertz Magnetic Fields and Adult Cancers in Taiwan. Epidemiology 1997;2:25-30.
22.    Li CY, Thériault G, Lin RS. A Validity Analysis of Residential Magnetic Fields Estimated from High-Voltage Transmission Lines. J Exposure Anal Environ Epidemiol 1997;7:493-504.
23.    Savitz DA, Dufort V, Armstrong B, Thériault G. Lung Cancer in Relation to Employment in the Electrical Utility Industry and Exposure to Magnetic Fields. Occup Environ Med 1997;54:396-402.
24.    Theriault G, Li CY. Risks of leukeamia among residents close to high voltage transmission electric lines. Occup Environ Med 1997;54:625?628.
25.    Deadman JE, Church G, Bradley C, Armstrong B, Thériault G. Task-based estimation of past exposures to 60-hertz magnetic and electric fields at an electrial utility. Scand J Work Environ Health 1997;23:440-409
26.    Thériault G. Evidence of carcinogenic risk following occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. Eur J Oncol 1998; 3:103-109.
27.    Thériault G. Champs électromagnétiques et cancer: bilan des études en milieu de travail. In Pollution atmosphérique et champs électromagnétiques. Edited by Patrick Levallois et Pierre Lajoie. Les Presses de l'Université Laval, Québec 1998. pp 163-188
28.    McBride ML, Gallagher RP, Thériault G, Armstrong BG, Tamaro S, Spinelli JJ, Deadman JE, Fincham S, Robson D, Choi W. Power frequency electric and magnetic fields and risk of childhood leukemia in Canada. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 149:831-42.
29.    Kheifets LI, Gilbert ES, Sussman SS, Guénel P, Sahl JD, Savitz DA, Thériault G. Comparative Analysis of the Magnetic Field Studies of Electric Utility Workers: Studies from France, Canada, and the United States. Occup Environ Med 1999; 56:567-574
30.    Deadman JE, Armstrong B, McBride ML, Gallagher R, Thériault G. Exposures of children in Canada to 60 Hz magnetic and electric fields. Scand J Work Environ Health 1999;25:368-375.
31.    Theriault G. Electromagnetic fields. In Epidemiology of Work Related Diseases. Second Edition. Edited by Corbett McDonald. British Medical Journal Publishing Group. BMA House, Tavistock Square, London WC1H9JR. 2000; pp 59-84. ISBN 0-7279-1432-4


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